Tag Archive | "HCFCs"

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The More We Understand Ozone, the Less We Know

Posted on 29 December 2013 by Jerry

The Ozone Hole over the Antarctic in 2013 was slightly smaller than the average sized hole in recent decades.  This has led some scientists to believe we are beginning to see proof that the world’s ozone depletion has leveled off with the first signs of improvement.

Most of the world’s scientists are more cautious however, pegging the first date for when we will see tangible evidence of healing at a decade from now.  At that projected rate, full recovery will not occur until 2070.

In the short term there are annual fluctuations in the size of the hole that have puzzled scientists.  For instance while the size of the 2011 ozone hole was almost as big as that in 2006, which was the largest hole on record, the size of the ozone hole in 2012 was the second smallest on record.

Recent studies indicate that weather patterns play a more important role in the size of the hole in any given year than previously thought.  Dr. Susan Strahan of Nasa’s Goddard Space Center in Maryland said, “We have identified another factor that wasn’t fully recognized before: and that is how much ozone gets brought to the polar regions in the first place, by the winds.”

This revelation has forced scientists to come up with an alternate explanation of the annual size of the ozone hole.  Their analysis is that it depends on the various layers of the stratosphere that are involved and the wind’s influence.  Scientists believe that the more ozone is blown into the lower stratosphere there is a greater supply to destroy and the hole looks bigger.  They believe this is what happened in 2006.

In 2011 the winds blew less ozone into the lower stratosphere so the ozone there was destroyed more quickly making the hole look bigger.  The scientists theorize that in 2012 the ozone was pushed into the upper stratosphere that masks the hole below and makes it look smaller.

This is not our first miscalculation.  When we originally attacked our ozone problem, we were not as sensitive to climate change as we are now.  Instead we were intent on the signing of the 1987 Montreal Protocol addressing ozone depletion.  In order to protect the ozone, parties to the Montreal Protocol approved the use of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) to replace the more ozone damaging chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and halons.  Also, selected third world countries were left out of the agreement.  (See January 2013 posting, “Are We Trading Greenhouse Gas for Ozone”).

Unfortunately we have come to regret our endorsement of HFCs as an ecofriendly substitute for CFCs, HCFCs, and halon gas.  While HFCs do not contain chlorine or bromine and therefore do not interact with ozone, they are powerful greenhouse gases that over time could negatively contribute to climate change.  Two varieties of HFC are particularly troubling because of how long they last in the atmosphere.  HFC-134 has an atmospheric lifetime of about 14 years while HFC-23 has a lifetime of 260 years.

In 2013 President Barack Obama announced an agreement in principle with India and signed a formal agreement with China to work at eliminating completely the use of the banned chemicals CFCs, HCFCs and halon gas.  In addition, the June 8, 2013 signed agreement with President Xi of China specifically mentions the threat of HFCs and indicates a willingness to significantly reduce the use of these chemicals as well.

Although this U.S./China document and the accompanying agreement by the G-20 countries on HFCs do not specify concrete steps or binding deadlines they do represent positive developments in the formal recognition of the problem.  The positive sentiments to make progress are encouraging to those of us that continue to be concerned about ozone depletion and global climate change.

Also encouraging are developments by the world’s major chemical producers who have developed alternative chemicals to replace HFCs.  DuPont has specifically mentioned their new family of refrigerants, Opteons, as a suitable replacement for other, more harmful, refrigerants.

Use the following links to obtain more information or see the original source documents:

http://earthsky.org/science-wire/ozone-hole-2013

http://news.yahoo.com/scientists-still-waiting-clear-signs-ozone-hole-healing-202114771.html

http://www.epa.gov/ozone/defns.html

http://www.ghgonline.org/othershfcs.htm

http://www.epa.gov/ozone/intpol/mpagreement.html

http://www.rtcc.org/2012/09/25/hfc-phasedown-can-cut-100bn-tonnes-of-greenhouse-gases-by-2050-dupont/

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Are We Trading Greenhouse Gas for Ozone?

Posted on 04 January 2013 by Jerry

Sometimes when you fix one problem you worsen another.  This appears to be what is happening with our use of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) as an ‘ozone-friendly’ replacement for Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and Hydrofluorochlorocarbons (HCFCs) in refrigerators and air conditioning units.  The  Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer which went into effect in 1989, banned the use in developed nations of chemicals (including CFCs and HCFCs) which destroy ozone in the higher atmosphere.  While the banned chemicals are also greenhouse gas causing, unfortunately the replacement chemicals, HFCs, are powerful greenhouse gases as well which will worsen our climate change problems.

A recent report from the United Nations Environment Programme (Unep) stated “While these ‘replacement for replacement’ chemicals cause near zero damage to the ozone layer, they are powerful greenhouse gases in their own right.”  The report continued by saying “HFCs, many more times potent than CO2 , could account for up to 20% of emissions (by 2050) and hamper efforts to curb climate change.”  This means that while we are fixing ozone depletion we are doing it with chemicals which contribute to global warming.

Unfortunately, our world situation is worsening because we are using increasing amounts of banned ozone depleting chemicals in older air conditioners and the greenhouse gas causing chemicals in newer air conditioners,.  The demand for air conditioning and refrigerators is continuing its unrestrained growth as the developing countries get wealthier and the weather gets hotter.  Growth of wealth in countries such as India and China will continue to drive demand for products which essentially worsen climate change.

In a related area, the Montreal Protocol gave exemptions to developing nations allowing them to continue using CFCs and HCFCs, the ozone depleting chemicals banned in the developed world.  There are places where second hand appliances, like used air conditioners, wind up and are refurbished and sold back into in this case, the African economy.   One such place is Ghana.  Ghana’s energy commission recently reported that over 2 million used, offending fridges have been imported into Ghana from primarily the European Union.

While Ghana banned the import of used air conditioners in 2008, the government extended the deadline until 2013 because of the impacts on local refurbishing businesses which have become the destination for used machines of many kinds.  This includes “e-waste” appliances like used TVs, computers, etc. which contain, in many cases, toxic pollutants.  The government is finally imposing its import ban on used refrigerators citing their higher than normal use of electricity.

There are other alternatives that could be used in air conditioning and refrigeration but we now have a worldwide infrastructure producing greenhouse gas generating appliances.  Unfortunately, the remedies fall under the category of climate change and we have seen how difficult it is to mobilize the world to act.  We can only hope this is added to the list of areas needing attention in the climate change “Big Deal” that is scheduled to be negotiated in 2015.

Use the following links for more information:

http://www.unep.org/dewa/portals/67/pdf/HFC_report.pdf

http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gases/fgases.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-15818659

http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2012/jul/10/climate-heat-world-air-conditioning

http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2012-02-15/news/31063251_1_ac-sales-ac-segment-ac-range

http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchina/2012-05/08/content_15234521.htm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-20877804

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