(Note: This is the final posting of chapters and sections of the book Beyond Animal, Ego and Time. For those of you who have read the book or portions of it, I invite you to comment, criticize or question. I hope you found useful information and that the ideas were thought provoking.)
The last imperative to revisit is the requirement to insure evolution continues. We previously discussed the three paths of progress in evolution: physical, intellectual, and emotional. Of these three, the path of evolution with the greatest velocity is intellectual. This is because intellectual evolution is accelerated by the exponential growth of knowledge and thought and not bounded by the time necessary for physical change. When you add past ideas and information to an expanding body of knowledge and thought produced by an ever increasing human population you have an unprecedented opportunity for the evolution of intellect and insight.
We acknowledged we might not perceive evolutionary advancements when they occur and cited our recent recognition of self-awareness in other animals. With the complexity of life in the modern world it is difficult to always be sensitive to what is occurring around us. To be vigilant and recognize evolutionary progress when we encounter it, we must come to the task with a certain openness and receptivity. We must bring the right analytical perspective. As much as we can benefit from a new thought, holding on too long to an old one can handicap us.
An example of this is the casual way many people use the notion of “survival of the fittest.” British economist Herbert Spencer is credited with first use of the phrase “survival of the fittest” to represent his characterization of Darwin’s process of natural selection. Over the years even Charles Darwin embraced the phrase as shorthand for natural selection. Unfortunately when people try to apply the thought in their daily life it limits their perspective and leads them to misconstrue the lesson of evolutionary progress.
This is most obvious in business. The phrase calls to mind imagery of one animal besting another. Many business people generalize this concept, using it to justify a different standard of morality. They use it to rationalize setting aside their normal personal moral standards so that they view the world of business as dog-eat-dog where it is expected and encouraged that the strong and knowledgeable take advantage of the weak and uninformed. Their conclusion that anything goes in business becomes the basis of primitive behavior of the past. People who see a world where this view is acceptable cloak themselves in misunderstood science as they strive to recreate the jungle around them. They have obviously missed the point.
Evolution provides a continually changing and improving definition of “the fittest”. The image of the most aggressive animal in the jungle is backward looking. Evolution looks forward and defines the fittest human being as the one who can demonstrate mastery in the present and future. The fittest today are those who exhibit an ability to work with and lead others. They have achieved the greatest level of consciousness and prescience by establishing future directions and taking actions that produce the greatest good for the greatest number. Evolution is a forward moving process that propels life and human beings to ever-higher levels of greatness and accomplishment.
It is difficult to precisely describe characteristics of the future “fittest” human beings because in large measure we will only know them when we see them. We can get a sense of the type of attributes they will have by looking at the people we honor and whose memory we hold most dear. We remember those who demonstrate concern for the welfare of strangers: Mother Teresa, Albert Schweitzer, and Oscar Schindler. We honor people who articulate higher human ideals and lead great change to improve the human condition, often with great personal sacrifice: Abraham Lincoln, Mahatma Ghandi, Martin Luther King, and Nelson Mandela. We learn from individuals who advance our knowledge and increase the probability of our survival in the future: Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, Charles Darwin, Galileo Galilei, Werner Heisenberg, and Francis Crick. We revere those who advance human belief and inspire us to be better people at peace with the rest of humanity: Siddhartha Gautama, Jesus Christ, Confucius, and Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah. These are the people we honor and remember. They possessed the attributes that made them the fittest of their time and epitomized the kind of people and actions to which we aspire.
We previously observed human thought is at its best when it rises to the highest levels of abstraction. This occurs when it is most productive in reaching for the greatest truth. The ability to abstract an idealized state to which we can direct our action is one of our most advanced intellectual capabilities. It is where we should be looking to see successive breakthroughs in our intellectual evolution.
Abraham Maslow died in 1970. Some people suggest that had he lived longer he would have added to his Hierarchy of Needs. The Hierarchy reflects an exclusively egocentric view of human consciousness. It approaches all levels of need from the individual’s perspective and fails to recognize any higher level of consciousness, one that transcends the individual. It is intuitively obvious that when the individual’s needs have been fulfilled in full measure there is a likelihood they will look beyond themselves to the welfare of others.
It can be observed, however, that many people recognize and respond to the needs of others and they do this without having achieved complete fulfillment of their own needs. This can be seen in the sizable charitable giving of human beings. Many economists, behavioral scientists and cynics question the motivations of those who donate because they sincerely believe human nature is unequivocally self-serving. They argue that charitable giving is motivated by a donor’s expected utility where they derive personal benefit immediately or in the future from the donation. Examples discussed include donating to the creation of a park where the individual will enjoy its benefits or supporting medical research from which he or she may benefit in the future. They also cite the donor’s opportunity to derive benefit from the act of giving either because the size of their donation enables them to the advance their social status or they receive a “warm glow” from making charitable contributions. They may experience this feeling of enhanced self worth even when no direct social benefits are forthcoming to themselves or the beneficiaries of charitable giving are far away.138
The greatest opportunity for us to see this charitable behavior as something other than self-serving occurs when the beneficiaries of the donations are unknown to the donor and little opportunity exists for personal recognition. Examples of these kinds of donations are those made in response to the December 26, 2004 Tsunami as a result of an earthquake in the Indian Ocean off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. Another example is donations given to provide disaster relief after Hurricane Katrina in 2005.
As a result of the 2004 Tsunami, an estimated 229,866 people in some fourteen countries were listed as killed or missing by the UN Office of the Special Envoy for Tsunami Recovery 2005.139 Humanity reacted to this tragedy by donating to its victims. Not counting the assistance and donations from governments nor funds donated by individuals outside the United States, for which there is inconsistent recordkeeping, donations principally from U.S. citizens amounted to $1,874,949,705 in cash and in-kind gifts.140 The comparable figure donated in response to Hurricane Katrina was estimated at $3,574,031,029.141
It is hard to argue that all of these donations are strictly self-serving. The scale of the contributions and the fact that many were made over the Internet, which is an almost anonymous donation medium, suggest there is another cause of this human response. When we identify the types of people we honor and remember we find a common thread that indicates that we recognize and assign the greatest value to behavior and achievements that provide benefit to others, and more particularly to strangers.
It is time to recognize evolutionary development of a new level of consciousness that extends beyond self-serving behavior. We need to add another Being need on Maslow’s Hierarchy, a need for Transcending Ego and manifesting a genuine concern for others. Even if, in order to side step an unnecessary debate, we must satisfy the skeptics by ascribing a “warm glow” of self worth to those who achieve Transcendence, so be it. It is still time to recognize the development of this new level of consciousness and intellectual ascendance.
The most intuitive way of thinking about this transcendent level of the hierarchy is to see it as a mirror image, only inverted, of the original hierarchy in terms of the needs of others. In this view, providing for the physiological needs of others has the greatest urgency, followed by satisfying their safety needs and, in turn, their belonging and esteem needs and ultimately their self actualization. This would seem to be supported by a history of charitable giving where the greatest outpouring of support has occurred when the physiological and safety needs of others are threatened.
There is one final thought that continues to handicap the evolution of human consciousness. That thought occurs when we believe the superficial differences between human beings somehow divide us into meaningful groups. The ongoing perception and definition of difference is the principal root cause of the “Them Versus Us” dichotomy that has contributed to the human history of discrimination, hostility, persecution, slavery, war, and genocide. This belief that somehow one group of human beings is fundamentally different from another and therefore inherently better or worse may be the single most destructive belief people have held onto since our most primitive days.
A wide intellectual acceptance of the theory of evolution exists that holds that all life forms are related. By implication, all human beings are related. This generalized relationship for many people is not direct enough to dispel their ongoing belief in meaningful differences. It is not explicit enough to persuade them to accept all human beings as peers and equals.
Part of the reason this exaggeration of differences persists is the less than certain knowledge of human ancestry provided by archeology, anthropology, and evolutionary biology. A number of fossil discoveries appear to consist of the early human species that inhabit various places on our evolutionary tree. These include Australopithecus anamensis, Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus and Homo heidelbergensis, and Homo sapiens.142 As new specimens are discovered whether on the island of Flores (Homo florensiensis)143, in a Siberian cave (Denisovans)144 or somewhere else, debates continue amongst paleoanthropologists as to which came first and which is in direct line of ancestral succession leading to humans.145 While these ongoing debates have kept alive the thought that the differences between us are significant they all fall somewhere on the human family tree. Unfortunately archeology, anthropology, and evolutionary biology will remain subject to individual interpretation, disagreement, and uncertainty for the foreseeable future.
The unraveling of the human genome in molecular genetics however gives us additional scientific insight that is more precise in defining human relationships. Two independent research efforts have used the nucleotide sequences of alleles and their rate of mutation over time to trace ancestry and population migrations back through the generations. “Dividing the total number of genetic differences between two populations by an expected rate of mutation provides an estimate of the time when the two shared a common ancestor.”146 One effort has been undertaken over a number of years is by Dr. Douglas C. Wallace and his colleagues at the Emory School of Medicine in Atlanta. They use mitochondrial (mt) DNA to create a genetic history.147 (mt)DNA is passed in tiny rings of genetic material in the female egg cell from the mother to offspring with no recombination. This gives a pure maternal genetic history unaffected by male genes. Another effort by Drs. Peter A. Underhill and Peter J. Oefner of Stanford University has analyzed the Y chromosome to trace ancestry through the male population.148
The result of these two efforts was to establish “that the root of the human phylogenetic tree occurs in Africa … and that eastern Africa may have been an ancient source of dispersion of modern humans both within and outside of Africa.”149 Further, the data in these studies trace human ancestry back to a single male and a single female in the relatively recent human history. The mitochondrial data trace our origin to a single female that existed in Africa between 100,000 to 200,000 years ago. “The tree is rooted in a single individual, the mitochondrial Eve, because all other lineages fell extinct.150 The study of the Y chromosome similarly traces our lineage to a single male, the Y Adam, who lived approximately 270,000 years ago.151
As with any scientific conclusion no absolute certainty exists. Indeed there are some who disagree with these findings. Some paleoanthropologists offer an alternative to this Out of Africa conclusion that is the Multiregional View. It suggests the evolution of modern humans began when Homo erectus spread throughout Eurasia approximately one million years ago. There is a third or Compromise hypothesis that combines elements of these two distinct viewpoints.152
These offered alternatives notwithstanding, the weight of scientific evidence indicates all human beings are closely related. Supporting this conclusion is the intellectual framework of evolution, archeological fossil record, our identical anatomical structure, knowledge that humans share 99.9% of the same genes153, and our collective lineage traced back to the same individual female and male ancestors who lived less than 300,000 years ago.
For these reasons we have to allow perceived human differences to slip away as insignificant and inconsequential. Then and only then can we fully acknowledge and embrace our collective human kinship. While we each are individuals with unique life experiences, we are the same. We each benefit from or fall victim to the human condition.
As we look around us we can find countless others that are less or more fortunate than ourselves. We see victims of the accident of origin who are born into environments that have the inherent dangers of starvation, disease, or warfare. We see people with life disabling medical conditions where each day is a stark reminder of their mortality. We see mental illness where the difficulty of day-to-day life or the blight of chemical imbalance or dependence has driven people away from reality. We see impossible circumstances that overwhelm a personal ability to overcome.
We also see people who are born to great wealth or have encountered fortunate circumstances in their lives. There are those who have found the great love of their life and those who have been set on a course that led them to great accomplishment. There are those who are unknown and those who have great celebrity. What we all share is the human condition. We all have high points and low points in our lives. In this we are the same.
This knowledge should lead us to know we are not alone. When we look outside ourselves to all of the other billions of people who are alive at any given moment, we see but one predicament, we are each but one of billions. We were all born, will live and die as a part of the life process. Each of us tries to find the best paths between our births and our deaths for our loved ones and ourselves. In this we are the same and it must bind us together. When we understand the profound shared reality we must feel empathy for one another. This empathy is what enables us to care about the quality of each other’s life experience and encourages us to act to help others when and where we are able.
There is much to do.
Afterwords: The Significance of Insignificance
Paradoxically our individual, objective insignificance in an infinite universe gives us the freedom to attempt to do things of significance. As one of the over six billion people alive today who will exist for probably no more than seven or eight decades within the three plus billion years that life has been on the planet, it is difficult to argue that any of us is capable of doing anything in our lifetime that will be significant. This recognition of our inherent, almost certain, insignificance is intimidating and distressing.
In a counterintuitive way however, this insignificance liberates us. Unbound by the burden of seeking to be significant we are free to try and influence the course of events and stand up to forces in our environment that are doing the things that are counterproductive to the future of humanity and life. If we fail to influence future direction we will end up being no less significant than we would have been anyway. If we succeed in influencing the future toward a more beneficial outcome in even a tiny way, we will bring a measure of significance to our existence way beyond that which we would otherwise have achieved.
Addendum – Intervention Opportunities
The following is a representative list of organizations actively pursuing issues including global climate change and the ozone hole, nuclear disarmament, synthetic biology, disaster and refugee relief, upgrading the quality of life experience, and biological diversity. These and other similarly focused groups would welcome your support and active involvement. Investigate thoroughly since each organization has its own approach to their mission with some groups being much more aggressive and militant than others.
Many of the organizations listed are actively involved in multiple issues. Find the right approach and organizations for you. These and other groups represent a way for each of us to take up the mantle of Guardian and make a difference in the course of our planet’s future. They represent a place to begin or expand our action.
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE – OZONE HOLE
Environmental Defense Fund (EDF)
257 Park Avenue South
New York, NY 10010
Tel: 212 505-2100
702 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20001
Tel: 202 462-1177
Natural Resources Defense Council
40 West 20th Street,
New York, NY 10011
Tel: 212 727-2700
Arms Control Association
1313 L Street, NW, Suite 130
Washington, DC 20005
Tel: 202 463-8270
(International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War)
66-70 Union Square, Suite 204
Somerville, MA 02143
Tel: 617 440-1733
NTI (Nuclear Threat Initiative)
1747 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, 7th Floor
Washington, DC 20006
Tel: 202 296-4810
42-46 Bethel Street,
Norwich NR2 1NR
Tel: 0845 45 88 366
Union of Concerned Scientists
Two Brattle Square
Cambridge, MA 02238-9105
Tel: 617 547-5552
War Resisters League
339 Lafayette Street
New York, NY 10012
Tel: 212 228-0450
SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY – GENETIC ENGINEERING
431 Gilmour Street
Ottawa, ON K2P 0R5
Human Genetics Alert
Unit 112 Aberdeen House 22-24
Highbury Grove, London N5 2EA
Tel: 020 7704 6100
Organic Seed Alliance
PO Box 772
Port Townsend, WA 98368
Tel: 360 385-7192
Center for Ethics in Medicine
University of Bristol
3rd Floor, Hampton House
Bristol BS6 6AU
Tel: +44 (0)117 331 0720
Synthetic Biology Project
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
1300 Pennsylvania Avenue
Washington, DC 20004-3027
Tel: 202 691-4398
The Center for Food Safety
660 Pennsylvania Avenue, SE, #302
Washington DC 20003
Tel: 202 547-9359
The Institute of Science in Society
29 Tytherton Road, London N19 4PZ
Tel: +44 (0) 1908 696101
Contact: Julian Haffegee
DISASTER AND REFUGEE RELIEF
International Red Cross
ICRC Headquarters in Geneva
International Committee of the Red Cross
19 avenue de la Paix
CH 1202 Geneva
Tel: ++41 (22) 734 60 01
Medecins Sans Frontieres
(Doctors Without Borders)
Rue de Lausanne 78
CP 116 – 1211
Tel: +41 (22) 849.84.84
Oxfam International Secretariat
266 Banbury Road
Oxford OX2 7DL
Tel: +44 (0) 1865 47 2602
UK 0300 200 1300
The International Rescue Committee
122 East 42nd Street
New York, NY 10168 USA
Tel: 212 551-3000
IMPROVED LIFE EXPERIENCE
PO Box 20646
Columbus Circle Station
New York, NY 10023
Tel: 212 586-0906
1200 18th Street NW, Suite 320
Washington, DC 20036
Tel: 202 559-7405
Global Fund for Women
222 Sutter Street, Suite 500
San Francisco, CA 94108
Tel: 415 248-4800
1 World Avenue
Little Rock, AR 72202
Tel: 800 422-0474
Human Rights First
333 Seventh Avenue,
New York, NY 10001-5108
Tel: 212 845-5200
Animal Welfare Institute
900 Pennsylvania Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20003
Tel: 202 337-2332
(American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals)
424 E. 92nd Street
New York, NY 10128-6804
Tel: 800 628-0028
Compassion in World Farming
Tel: +44 (0)1483 521 950
P.O. Box 150 Watkins Glen,
New York 14891
Tel: 607 583-2225
PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals)
501 Front Street,
Norfolk, VA 23510
Tel: 757 622-7382
The Humane Society of the United States
2100 L Street, NW
Washington, DC 20037
Tel: 202 452-1100
The National Anti-Vivisection Society
53 West Jackson Blvd., Suite 1552
Chicago, IL 60604
Tel: 800 888-NAVS
Center for Biological Diversity
P.O. Box 710
Tucson, AZ 85702-0710
Tel: 520 623-5252
Global Crop Diversity Trust
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
Tel: +39 06 570 55142
+39 06 570 53324
abstraction, human thought and, 72–74, 187
acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 128
affection, needs for, 100
Africa, human phylogenetic tree and, 191–192
agriculture, genetically modified organisms and, 149–150
AIDS. See acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Alpha Centauri System, 43
America and Cosmic Man (Lewis), 14
American Clean Energy and Security Act, 126
amino acids, 21
Anderla, Georges, 64
Ångström, Knut, 118
cycle of life, 178
farm cruelty and, 179–183
human reaction to, 178–179
self recognition and, 178
tools, use of, 57–59
Antarctic, ozone levels, 110–111
Aristotle, 30, 118
Armstrong, Neil, 127
Army-McCarthy Senate hearings, 137
Arrhenius, Svante, 118
art, emotional development and, 78–79
atomic bomb, invention of, 127
Australopithecus anamensis, 190
complex reflex, 66–67
knowledge-based cosmology and, 4
Behringer, Richard, 52
early stage of human civilization, 9
knowledge vs., 11–12, 81–82
belongingness, needs for, 100
Big Bang, 20, 32
billiard ball hypothesis, 35
biogenic sphere, 24–26
Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), 150
birds, tools, use of, 57
Birks, J., 135
Bohr, Niels, 36–37
Bolshevik Party, 136
Bornean Orangutan, 57
Broglie, Louis de, 37
bromofluorocarbon compounds, 110
Bush, George W.
Russian threat and, 140
California Institute of Technology, 66
carbon dioxide (CO2), climate change and, 117–119
cells, memory and, 45–46
Center for the Neuroscience of Fear and Anxiety, New York University, 75
CERN. See European Organization for Nuclear Research
CFCs. See chlorofluorocarbons
chain reflex, 66
charitable giving, motivation of, 188–189
Chen, Shaohua, 104
Chernoybl-4 nuclear reactor, 139
chimpanzees, tools, use of, 58–59
CFCs and, 115
communism, changes and, 140–141
nuclear weapons, 133, 138, 138–139
poverty line, 105
chlorine atoms, 112
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 110–112
climate change, 105–106, 110, 117–131
Climate Stewardship Act, 126
Climate Stewardship and Innovation Act, 126
Cocconi, Giuseppi, 42
The Cognitive Animal (Gallup, Anderson, Shillito), 59, 63
cognitive dissonance, 11
Cold War, 133–134, 136–140
Collins, William, 125
Colman, Robert, 125
Communism, 136–138, 137
The Communist Manifesto, 136
complex reflex, 66–67
compound lens microscope, 27
Compromise hypothesis, 191
compromises, government and industry, 165
conditioned reflex, 65
beliefs vs. knowledge, 11–13
failure to address, 12–13
segregated societies and, 11–12
contextual reformation, 173–174
cosmology, knowledge of universe and, 16–17
Crutzen, Paul, 110–111, 135
Cuban Missile Crisis, 138
cyclic universe, 32
Damasio, Antonio, 74–75, 77–78
Darwin, Charles, 24, 63, 186
inevitability of, 19
of organism, life information and, 53
reanimation and, 91–93
consciousness, emotions and, 74–75
self awareness and, 65–68
deoxyribonucleic acid. See DNA
Department of Biological Anthropology, Cambridge University, 58
Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, 50
Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas, 52
Department of Zoology, University of Melbourne, 52
Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain (Damasio), 74
Descartes, René, 56
deterministic system, 35–36
Development Economics Research Group, World Bank, 104
Diamond, Jared, 165
differences, between humans, 189–193
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), 22
death of organism and, 48–58
genetic engineering and, 148
matter, memory and, 45
mitochondrial, 49, 191
physical evolution and, 70
Dobson, Gordon, 110
Dobson unit, 110
“Don’t ask, Don’t tell” policy, 13
Drake, Frank, 42
Duke Energy, 127
earth, age of, 71
egocentricity, transcending of, 185–193
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and, 38
light, study of, 36
matter, energy and, 19
simultaneity and, 23
Ekman, Paul, 76
Electric Utility Cap and Trade Act, 126
electron microscopy, 51
quantum mechanical theory and, 37
wave function and, 37
emission reduction, 126–127
Emory School of Medicine, Atlanta, 191
The Emotional Brain (LeDoux), 75
art and, 78–79
centering of, 173–175
consciousness, decision making and, 74–75
evolutionary development and, 72–79
origin of, 76–77
empathy, self awareness and, 62–64
Engels, Friedrich, 136
entanglement, quantum, 38–39
environment, humans, impact on, 109–116
esteem, needs for, 100
European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), 28
European Union, 137
aggregate level, 88–89
of emotion, 72–79
of intellect, 72–74, 185
one-to-many-to-one progression, 88
survival of the fittest, 186–187
extraterrestrial life, probability of, 42–43
farm animal cruelty, 179–183
Flannery, Tim, 110–111, 112
force carrier particles, 28–29
fossil DNA, study of, 48–58
Fourier, Joseph, 117–118
France, nuclear weapons, 133
free will, 35
Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 12
Gallup, Gordon G., Jr., 62–63
Gautama Buddha, 30
generation, measurement of, 130
genetic engineering, 70–71, 147–150
genetically modified food, 149–150, 158
Germany, nuclear weapons, 135–136
global climate change, 105–106, 110, 117–131
global village, 14
Global Warming Pollution Reduction Act, 126
Global Warming Reduction Act, 126
God, singular life form and, 92
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 139–140
Gore, Al, 122
gorillas, brain and, 63
Great Pyramid of Khufu, 127
Green Revolution, 125–126
greenhouse gas reductions, 126
The Guardian (newspaper), 156
Gulick, Steve, 58
Guns, Germs & Steel (Diamond), 165
The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (McLuhan), 14
Haywood, James, 125
HCFC-22 (hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22), 115
Heisenberg Indeterminacy Principle, 37–38
Heisenberg, Werner, 37–38
Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, 37–38
Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow), 98–106, 170, 187
HIV. See human immunodeficiency virus
Homo erectus, 190, 191
Homo ergaster, 190
Homo florensiensis, 190
Homo genus, 71
Homo habilis, 57, 190
Homo heidelbergensis, 190
Homo rudolfensis, 190
Homo sapiens, 190
first appearance of, 71
uniqueness of, 55–68
homosexuality, American military and, 13
household wealth, 104–105
Hubble space telescope, 31
Human Genome Project, 46
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 155
body, elements of, 54
development, equality of, 162–163
intervention, future and, 161–167
phylogenetic tree, 191–192
thought, evolution of, 72–74
Hume, David, 30
Hurricane Katrina, 2005, charity and, 188
Huygens, Christiaan, 36
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22. See HCFC-22
imperatives, in belief system, 94–96
implications, in belief system, 94–95
CFCs and, 115
nuclear weapons, 133
inductive reasoning, 32–33
infinity, universe and, 30–33
innate reflex, 65, 66
intellect, evolution of, 8, 72–74
interaction, with others, 175–177
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPPC), 122–124
International Geophysical Year, 119
International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA), 149
intervention, future and, 161–167
intuition, emotion and, 77–78
investigatory reflex, 66
IPPC. See Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
ISAAA. See International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications
isolation, beliefs, conflict and, 11–12
Israel, nuclear weapons and, 133
Jansen, Zacharias, 27
Japan, nuclear weapons, 136
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 155
Jones, Jim, 12
Jurassic Park scenario, 86–87
Kasner, Edward, 30
Keeling, Charles David, 119
Kennedy, Donald, 125
Kennedy, John F., 127
Klaus, Vaclav, 140
belief vs., 81–82
human differentiation and, 68
quantifying of, 64
Koch, Christof, 66–67
Korean War, 138
Krings, Matthias, 49
language, human differentiation and, 68
Large Hadron Collider (LHC), 28
Law on Cooperatives, 139
capitalism, abuses of, 137
climate change and, 126–127
farm animal cruelty and, 179–183, 182
LeDoux, Joseph, 75
Lenin, Vladimir, 136
Lewis, Wyndham, 14
LHC. See Large Hadron Collider
life, beginning of, 20–23
life experience, enhancement of, 169–183
life matter, 25
light, study of, 36–39
Lindeman, F.A., 110
livestock, cruelty and, 179–183
living matter, 25–26
love, needs for, 100
Lovelock, James, 128
MacArthur, General Douglas, 138
Macquarie University, 110
MAD. See Mutually Assured Destruction
magnetic field, planet and, 29
Manning, Martin R., 125
Mao Tse-Tung, 138
mark tests, self-awareness and, 60–61
Marx, Karl, 136
Maslow, Abraham, 97–103, 102, 187
mass spectrometry, 51
matter particles, 28
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 48, 58
McLuhan, Marshall, 14
McMaster University, Hamilton, CA, 50
Medvedev, Dmitry, 134
encoding and, 84–85
living matter and, 45–54, 83–84
transfer of, past into present, 85
meteorites, 21, 29, 41
methane (CH4), 128–129
Millennium Development Goals, UN General Assembly, 106–107
Miller/Urey experiment, 21
mirror tests, self-awareness and, 60–61
mitochondrial DNA, 49, 191
first life on planet, 21–22
manufactured, grown, 151–152
Molina, Mario, 111
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1987, 112, 115
Morgan, Dave, 58
Morrison, Philip, 42
The Moscow Treaty, 134
Mote, Philip, 125
Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY, 155
Multiregional View, 191
mutation, genetic modification and, 70
Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD), 134
Nagasaki, nuclear bomb, 133
National Academy of Sciences, 149
natural selection, 24, 186
Nature (Molina, Sherwood Rowland), 111
Neanderthal, genetic analysis of, 49–51
New START. See New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty
New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START), 134
New York University, 75
Newton, Isaac, 36
Nisbet, Euan, 129
Noonan, James, 50
North Korea, nuclear weapons and, 133
North Pole, ozone hole, 112
nuclear disarmament, 144–145
nuclear DNA, 49
nuclear weapons, 133–146
nucleotides, synthetic biology and, 152
Obama, Barack, 134
October Revolution, 1917, 136
Oefner, Peter J., 191
On the Origin of Species (Darwin), 24
one-to-many-to-one progression, 24
opposable thumb, 57
optical microscopy, 51
origin of life experiments, 20–22
Out of Africa model, 191
Oxford University, 110
ozone hole, 109–116
Pääbo, Svante, 48–50
Pakistan, nuclear weapons and, 133
Pask, Andrew, 52
Pavlov, Ivan, 5, 65–66
People’s Temple Agricultural Project, 12
peptide nucleic acid (PNA), 151–152
phylogenetic tree, 191–192
genetics, human science of, 70–71
random mutation, genetic modification and, 70–71
selective breeding, 70–71
The Physical Science behind Climate Change (Scientific American), 125
physiological needs, 98
Planck’s constant, 37
PNA. See peptide nucleic acid
Poinar, Hendrik, 50
poliovirus, genetically engineered, 156
politics, global climate change and, 125–126, 147
poverty rates, 105
prefrontal cortex, self awareness and, 67–68
present moment, 171–173
Prevention of Farm Animal Cruelty Act, 182
primates, tools, use of, 58–59
extraterrestrial life and, 42–43
future events and, 40–41
mathematics of, 39–40
past frequency, 40
time and, 40
proportionality policy, weapons and, 142–143
prosperity, world, 106
Protestant Branch Davidians, 12
Proxima Centauri, 43–44
Putin, Vladimir, 134, 140
deterministic universe and, 36
development of, 39
A Quest for Consciousness: a Neurobiological Approach (Koch), 66
Randerson, James, 156
Ravallion, Martin, 104
reanimation, death and, 91–93
of self-defense, 66
belief, supernatural and, 3–4
definition of, 10
remote projection, 174
Renfree, Marilyn, 52
Revelle, Roger, 119
ribonucleic (RNA) acid, 22
Rowland, F. Sherwood, 111
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 111, 118
Rubin, Edward, 50
New START, 134
nuclear war, U.S. and, 135
nuclear weapons, disarmament, 144
threat of, 140–141
Safe Climate Act, 126
safety needs, 98–100
Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 104
Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA, 149
Sanz, Crickette, 58
Schrödinger, Edwin, 37
Science magazine, 125
Scientific American magazine, 125
scientific knowledge, systems of thought and, 10–11
scientific method, 32–33
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 119
secular institutions, beliefs, conflict and, 11
selective breeding, 70–71
self awareness, 59–65
animal kingdom, humans and, 69–70
decision making and, 65–68
empathy and, 62–64
prefrontal cortex and, 67–68
self, consciousness of, 72–73
self-defense reflex, 66
Seventh Day Adventist Church, 12
sheep-human chimera, 149
simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), 155
simultaneity, Einstein and, 23
singular life form, optional future and, 89–96
Sirotta, Milton, 30–31
SIV. See simian immunodeficiency virus
smallpox virus, 156
SORT. See Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty
South Africa, nuclear weapons and, 133
South Pole, ozone hole, 112
Cold War and, 138–139
disintegration of, 140
nuclear weapons and, 133
Spanish Flu virus, 155–156
Special Theory of Relativity (Einstein), 23
Spencer, Herbert, 186
Stalin, Joseph, 138
Standard Model of particle physics, 28
Stanford University, 191
stars, first formation of, 20
State University of New York, Stony Brook, 156
stimulus, response and, 65–66
Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT), 134
String Theory, 33
survival of the fittest, 186–187
synthetic biology, 70–71, 147, 150–159
systems of thought
development of, 10
scientific knowledge and, 10–11
Szilard, Leo, 127
Taubenberger, Jeffrey, 155
teraelectronvolts (TeV), 28
TeV. See teraelectronvolts
abstraction and, 72–74, 187
human, evolution of, 72–74
systems of, 10–11
thumb, opposable, 57
time, tense of, 170–171
tools, use of, in animals, 57–59
Topolanek, Mirek, 140
Township-Village Enterprises, 141
transcendence, of ego, 189
Trinity test nuclear explosion, NM, 133
Tsunami 2004, charity and, 188
Tyndall, John, 117–118
ultraviolet (UV) radiation, 110, 111
uncertainty, universe and, 35–44
Underhill, Peter A., 191
understanding, search for, 7–17
United Kingdom, nuclear weapons, 133
United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), 122
United Nations General Assembly, 106–107
United Nations, nuclear weapons and, 145
United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research, 104
global climate change and, 125
nuclear weapons, 133–135
use of power and, 141–142
United States Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 155
United States Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, 155
United States Congress, greenhouse gas reductions, 126
United States Department of Agriculture, 150
fundamental nature of, 27–28
infinity and, 30–33
inner, investigation of, 28
perceptual levels and, 29
structure of, 33–34
University of Nevada-Reno, 148–149
University of Tokyo, 149
UV radiation. See ultraviolet radiation
VH Bio Ltd., 156
Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, 1985, 112, 114
Vindija Cave, Neanderthal bones and, 49–50
viruses, risks of, 154–155
Wallace, Douglas C., 191
Warren Jeffs, 12
wealth, household, 104–105
The Weather Makers (Flannery), 110
weather models, 120–121, 122
“What-is-it?” reflex, 66
WHO. See World Health Organization
Wildland Security, 58
Wilson, Allan, 48
Wimmer, Eckard, 156
WMO. See World Meteorological Organization
World Bank, 104
The World distribution of Household Wealth (UN), 104
The World Distribution of Income: Falling Poverty and…Convergence, Period* (Sala-i-Martin), 04
World Health Organization (WHO), 156
World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 122
World poverty line, 104
Young, Thomas, 36
Zanjani, Esmail, 148
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51Ibid, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov.
52Ibid, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov.
53Ibid, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
54Christof Koch, A Quest for Consciousness: A Neurobiological Approach, Roberts & Company Publishers, March 2004.
55Ibid. Christof Koch
56Antonio R. Damasio, Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain, Harper Perennial, November 1, 1995.
57Ibid. Antonio R. Damasio.
58Joseph Ledoux, The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life, Simon & Schuster; First Edition, March 27, 1998.
59Paul Ekman, Facial Expression and Emotion, American Psychologist, Vol. 48, No. 4, pps 384-392, April 1993, 1992 Award Addresses.
60Demis Hassabis, Carlton Chu, Geraint Rees, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Peter D. Molyneux and Eleanor A. Maguire, Decoding Neuronal Ensembles in the Human Hippocampus, Current Biology, Volume 19, Issue 7, pps 546-554, March 12, 2009.
61Ibid, Antonio R. Demasio.
62Edward N. Zalta, Principal Editor, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Epistemology, December 14, 2005, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/epistemology.
63Paul J. Steinhardt and Neil Turok, A Cyclic Model of the Universe, Science, May 24, 2002, Vol. 296. No. 5572, pp. 1436-1439. DOI: 10.1126/science.1070462
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65Xavier Sala-I-Martin, The World Distribution of Income: Falling Poverty and … .Convergence, Period, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. CXXI, May 2006, Issue 2.
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67The Millennium Development Goals Report, United Nations, New York, 2007.
68UN Report Points to Serious Shortfalls in Development Aid: Millennium Goals in Jeopardy, Secretary-General Warns, United Nations Press Release, July 2, 2007.
69Tim Flannery, The Weather Makers, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2006
70Ibid, The Weather Makers, p214.
71The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995, Press Release, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, October 11, 1995.
72Ibid, The Weather Makers, p217-218.
73Keith Bradsher, New York Times, Air conditioners batter the ozone layer, San Francisco Chronicle, page A5, Friday, February 23, 2007.
74Spencer Weart, The Carbon Dioxide Greenhouse Effect, Text of an essay in the web site “The Discovery of Global Warming” by Spencer Weart,
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76Spencer Weart, The Discovery of Global Warming, Chaos in the Atmosphere, June 2007, http://www.aip.org/history/climate/chaos.htm
77The IPCC: Who Are They and Why Do Their Climate Reports Matter?, Global Warming, Union of Concerned Scientists, www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/science/the-ipcc.html.
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102Ko Kobayakawa, Reiko Kobayakawa, Hideyuki Matsumoto, Yuichiro Oka, Takeshi Imai, Masahito Ikawa, Masaru Okabe, Toshio Ikeda, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Takefumi Kikusui, Kensaku Mori & Hitoshi Sakano, Innate versus learned odour processing in the mouse olfactory bulb, Nature 450, pps 503-508, November 22, 2007.
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117Gary Stix, Owning the Stuff of Life, Scientific American, February 2006, pps 76-83.
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128Julie Wakefield, Doom and Gloom by 2100, Scientific American, July 2004, pgs 48-49.
129Jocelyn Kaiser, Synthetic Biology – Attempt to Patent Artificial Organism Draws a Protest, Science, Vol 316, June 15, 2007, page 1557
130Carolyn Y. Johnson, Accessible Science: Hackers aim to make biology household practice, The Boston Globe, September 15, 2008. http://www.boston.com/news/science/articles/2008/09/15/accessible_science?mode=pf
131Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel, W.W. Norton & Co.; July 11, 2005
132Dr. Francis Collins, Director of the National Human Genome Research Institute at the National Institutes of Health, in a speech at the Wilson Center Director’s Forum in a series sponsored by the Wilson Center’s Foresight and Governance Project, March 6, 2001.
133USDA, 9 C.F.R. 313.1-90, Title 9—ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS; CHAPTER III—FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE; SUBCHAPTER A—AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION; PART 313—HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK. Internet link: http://www.animallaw.info/administrative/adus9cfr313.htm
134Table of State Humane Slaughter Laws, Michigan State University College of Law, 2006, www.animallaw.info, www.animallaw.info/articles/ovusstatehumaneslaughtertable.htm#top.
135FSIS Directive 6900.2 Revision 1, 11/25/03, United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service.
136Farm Animal Statistics: Slaughter Totals, The Humane Society of the United States, citing statistics provided by the USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service, August 22, 2009.
137Initiative 07-0028 California Prevention of Farm Animal Cruelty Act, http://ag.ca.gov/cms_pdfs/initiatives/2007-07-11_07-0028_Initiative.pdf
138Media Coverage & Charitable Giving After the 2004 Tsunami, Philip Brown and Jessica Minty, William Davidson Institute Working Paper Number 855, December 2006.
139Ibid. page 4
140Tsunami Relief Giving, The Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University, http://philanthropy.iupui.edu/Research/Giving/tsunami_relief_giving.aspx
141Gulf Coast Hurricane Relief Donations, The Center on Philanthropy atIndiana University, http://philanthropy.iupui.edu/Research/Giving/Hurricane_Katrina.aspx
142Early Human Phylogeny, Human Ancestors Hall: Tree, Smithsonian Institution, http://anthropology.si.edu/humanorigins/ha/a_tree.html
143Archaeology and age of a new hominin from Flores in eastern Indonesia, M. J. Morwood, R.P. Soejono, R. G. Roberts, T. Sutikna, C. S. M. Turney, K. E. Westaway, W. J. Rink, J.-x. Zhao, G. D. van den Bergh, Rokus Awe Due, D. R. Hobbs, M. W. Moore, M. I. Bird & L. K. Fifield, Letters to Nature, Nature 431, ppgs 1087-1091, October 28, 2004.
144Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia, David Reich, Richard E. Green, Martin Kircher, Johannes Krause, Nick Patterson, Eric Y. Durand, Bence Viola, Adrian W. Briggs, Udo Stenzel, Philip L. F. Johnson, Tomislav Maricic, Jeffrey M. Good, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Can Alkan, Qiaomei Fu, Swapan Mallick, Heng Li, Matthias Meyer, Evan E. Eichler, Mark Stoneking, Michael Richards, Sahra Talamo, Michael V. Shunkov, Anatoli P. Derevianko, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Nature 468, pgs 1053-1060, December 23, 2010.
145African Skull Points to One Human Ancestor, Ann Gibbons, March 20, 2002, ScienceNOW
146Theories on Modern Human Origins and Diversity, Smithsonian Institution, http://anthropology.si.edu/humanorigins/faq/Encarta/diversity.htm
147Whole-mtDNA Genome Sequence Analysis of Ancient African Lineages, Mary Katherine Gonder, Holly M. Mortensen, Floyd A. Reed, Alexandra de Sousa, and Sarah A. Tishkoff, 2006 Oxford University Press for the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
148The Human Family Tree: 10 Adams and 18 Eves, Nicholas Wade, New York Times, May 2, 2000, http://www.nytimes.com/library/national/science/050200sci-genetics-evolution.html.
149Ibid, Whole-mtDNA Genome Sequence Analysis of Ancient African Lineages
150Ibid, The Human Family Tree
151The Y Chromosome and the Origin of All of Us (Men), Svante Pääbo, Science, Vol. 268, May 26, 1995. Page 1142.
152Ibid, Theories on Modern Human Origins and Diversity, Smithsonian Institution
153Lauren Crowley, Human Genomics: Our Shared Inheritance, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=news.item&news_id=2150