Archive | July, 2013

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Deciding To Cause Change

Posted on 24 July 2013 by Jerry

It is daunting to be one of over seven billion people. It is not surprising that some young people are convinced they can’t make a difference and are pessimists about the future they are facing.  A contrary and optimistic point of view is to realize the contribution of human determination and will in the events of each day.  Whether you see the outcomes as positive or negative, behind most outcomes is a person or persons who made them happen.  You can decide to be one of those persons.

Another cause for optimism is human history.  For over a million years our genus has been evolving.  Modern humans appeared between 200,000 and 300,000 years ago.  We have solved or made progress at solving every problem we have pitted our energy against.  We have no reason to believe we will not also solve the problems we presently face.

The simple truth is that any one of us can decide to make things happen rather than be overwhelmed by our perceived powerlessness.  Each of us must remember that demonstrations have organizers, facilitators and participants.  Books and pamphlets have writers, distributors, and readers.  Solutions have creators who developed answers and communicated them.

We can choose to be any one of these and work in concert with others to make change happen.  Most often people start by following.  Leadership is eventually bestowed on a selected individual(s) that others are convinced will lead them to a desired outcome.

No one has ever altered the future by sitting dejectedly in front of their TV in a darkened living room deploring all of the world’s events and depressed about perceived powerlessness.  All those people do is take themselves out of the way of someone who has decided to make something happen.

Most of us have heard someone else deploring the condition of the world.  I have personally heard young people who ask why they should bring a baby into a world such as this?  This assumes a feeling of powerlessness projected on the next generation.  It need not be so and it is not what we want to teach the next generation.  The history of humanity has been a history of individuals who chose the course they wanted to pursue.  No matter how many articles I write, problems I rail against or actions of others with which I disagree, I am an optimist.  I would not spend the effort if I thought it didn’t make a difference.

Change is not easy and always takes longer than we fear and produces results that are less than we hope for.  And yet, those of us who have lived long enough have seen a world where people no longer routinely throw trash out their car window, smoke in public places, hide their sexuality, or can’t marry and make a family with whomever they wish.

In the book, Beyond Animal, Ego and Time it states, “We remember those who demonstrate concern for the welfare of strangers; Mother Teresa, Albert Schweitzer, and Oscar Schindler.  We honor people who articulate higher human ideals and lead great change to improve the human condition, often with great personal sacrifice; Abraham Lincoln, Mahatma Ghandi, Martin Luther King, and Nelson Mandela.  We learn from individuals who advance our knowledge and increase the probability of our survival in the future; Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, Charles Darwin, Galileo Galilei, Werner Eisenberg, and Francis Crick.  We revere those who advance human belief and inspire us to be better people at peace with the rest of humanity; Siddhartha Gautama, Jesus, Confucius, and Muhammad.”

Less famous but still impactful are millions of others known to those who worked beside them to accomplish positive change.  This could easily be you.  You must only make the decision and put your effort behind achieving a goal.  Others will help you.  They are looking for you and will welcome you.  Everyone who decides to look will find a chosen path, others to join them and see a better future accomplished.

Comments (0)

Tags: , , , , , , ,

Income Disparity Grows, Migration Push May Come

Posted on 18 July 2013 by Jerry

Recent studies show that after a brief pause the income disparity of the U.S. has continued to grow, CEOs salaries are back up and belief in U.S. as the “land of opportunity” is faltering.  The gap is widening here and abroad with a couple of notable exceptions, China and India.

As reported in the World of Work Report of 2013 issued by the U.N.’s International Labor Organization, the average ratio of the 15 largest U.S. companies CEO compensation is back to over 500 times the average earnings of their employees or back to the same level as before the market crash of 2009.  This compares to the same measure for the Netherlands at around 60 times, China at 130 times, and the United Kingdom at 220 times.

This of course is a comparison of CEO income to the average worker’s income.  Also this year, Bloomberg reported on the pay multiple of some of the Standard and Poor’s 500 Index of companies between the CEO’s pay and that of their lowliest worker.  The most egregiously high multiple was between Ron Johnson’s compensation package at J.C. Penney’s and his least paid full time employee.  The multiple was a staggering 1,795 times.

Joseph Stiglitz, Nobel Laureate in Economics, has stated that if the income inequality were not enough he sees “increasing economic inequality leading to increasing inequality in political power.”  In his mind the spiral continues leading to increased economic inequality which will not be possible to reverse without significant changes in our economy and how we regulate and run our businesses.

Looking beyond the U.S. at global income disparities, a report from the World Bank’s Development Research Group Poverty and Inequality team draws interesting conclusions.  It’s author, Branko Milanovic, explains how income inequality has been looked at with different formulas applying to different groups.  He argues it is best to look at global inequality composed of individuals, not nations, as this shows the most accurate views of the disparities.

The three major conclusions of this report are that:

  • Researchers who wish to highlight the growing unevenness of global income focus on growing inter-country gaps.  These statistics do not consider population sizes in their respective countries.  Those who wish to show a more positive outcome adjust their numbers to account for the population densities of countries such as China and India.
  • Because of China’s economic growth, supported by India’s, the data shows they are single handedly forcing world population inequality to decline.  The report states, “Perhaps for the first time since the Industrial Revolution, there may be a decline in global inequality.”
  • Attempting to plot the cause of global inequality (using the Thiel coefficient rather than the Gini), the author looks at the reasons for inequality between 1870 and 2000 based on the two factors of “class” and “location”.  Class is defined as the inequalities between the classes of rich and poor worldwide while location is the size of the gaps between mean incomes of one country versus another.  The data shows the importance between these factors has inverted since 1870 so that location is now the dominant factor.

Further the two elements that affect future inequality are economic growth and location.  If the economic growth in the third world stagnates then pressure for migration from poor countries to wealthy ones will increase as people seek to better their circumstances.  This would take advantage of incomes that vary considerably from country to country.

It is best illustrated by the reality that the ‘poorest’ Americans are still at the 60% percentile of world income distribution.  This means our poorest have a higher annual income than 60% of the world’s population.  Absent economic growth, people will seek to migrate to locations where the lowest income is still significantly higher than the incomes of where they are.

These articles raise a few suggestions for how income inequalities should be addressed.   In the United States we must:

  • Enforce the recently enacted Dodd-Frank law that requires companies to reveal their CEO-to-worker pay ratios.  For more than three years this requirement has been bottled up in an SEC that has failed to draw up the rules to implement it.  Of the 94 rules called for in the Dodd-Frank law the SEC has drafted only 39 of the required rules or less than half.  This ratio would increase shareholder and employee pressure on rubber stamp boards of directors that owe their positions to their CEOs and on the greed of higher management to either limit CEO compensation or increase the wages of the average worker.  James Cotton was possibly the first person to propose publishing this ratio in a 1997 article in the Northern Illinois University Law Review.  The dean of the University of Toronto’s Rotman School of Management, Roger Martin, said “When CEOs switched from asking the question of ‘how much is enough’ to ‘how much can I get,’ investor capital and executive talent started scrapping like hyenas for every morsel.  It is not that either hates labor, or wants to crush their lives.  They just don’t care.”
  • Congress must pass a law reversing the Supreme Court Citizens United ruling that removed constraints on the money companies can spend to sway the electorate.  In addition we should require a company’s shareholders to approve campaign contributions.
  • Joseph Stiglitz says the U.S. needs to stop rent-seekers in the U.S. economy who “extract profit from existing industries without contributing value – in the form of innovation, entrepreneurship, and growth – to the economy.  They use their wealth to consolidate their power, by influencing regulations and government policies.  This has happened in many instances – we see it in our military and drug companies, in our banks that succeeded in stripping away regulations, which allowed them to earn huge profits at the expense of the rest of society – and it’s not a model for a competitive dynamic economy.”  Further he supports the raising of taxes on capital gains and suggests it should be taxed at the same rate as income.  He states, “And government can use those increased revenues to invest in those areas that will give a boost to the opportunities of the middle and bottom income earners – especially investments in education, health, technology, and infrastructure.”

These are just a few of the most obvious steps we should take to rebalance the economic differences between the top 1% and the rest of our citizenry.  We should support politicians that are working this agenda.  Further, we need to invest in the economic growth in the rest of the world to insure the collective economic security and fairness increases for all the world’s citizens.

Use the following links to obtain additional information:–en/index.htm .  Go to the right hand column scrolling country and region briefs until you reach your area of interest.  Select the country of interest.

Comments (2)

Tags: , , , , , , , , , ,

Beyond Animal, Ego and Time: Chapter 16 – Transcending Egocentricity, The Significance of Insignificance, Intervention Opportunities, Index and Sources

Posted on 08 July 2013 by Jerry

(Note: This is the final posting of chapters and sections of the book Beyond Animal, Ego and Time.  For those of you who have read the book or portions of it, I invite you to comment, criticize or question.  I hope you found useful information and that the ideas were thought provoking.)


The last imperative to revisit is the requirement to insure evolution continues. We previously discussed the three paths of progress in evolution: physical, intellectual, and emotional. Of these three, the path of evolution with the greatest velocity is intellectual. This is because intellectual evolution is accelerated by the exponential growth of knowledge and thought and not bounded by the time necessary for physical change. When you add past ideas and information to an expanding body of knowledge and thought produced by an ever increasing human population you have an unprecedented opportunity for the evolution of intellect and insight.

We acknowledged we might not perceive evolutionary advancements when they occur and cited our recent recognition of self-awareness in other animals. With the complexity of life in the modern world it is difficult to always be sensitive to what is occurring around us. To be vigilant and recognize evolutionary progress when we encounter it, we must come to the task with a certain openness and receptivity. We must bring the right analytical perspective. As much as we can benefit from a new thought, holding on too long to an old one can handicap us.

An example of this is the casual way many people use the notion of “survival of the fittest.” British economist Herbert Spencer is credited with first use of the phrase “survival of the fittest” to represent his characterization of Darwin’s process of natural selection. Over the years even Charles Darwin embraced the phrase as shorthand for natural selection. Unfortunately when people try to apply the thought in their daily life it limits their perspective and leads them to misconstrue the lesson of evolutionary progress.

This is most obvious in business. The phrase calls to mind imagery of one animal besting another. Many business people generalize this concept, using it to justify a different standard of morality. They use it to rationalize setting aside their normal personal moral standards so that they view the world of business as dog-eat-dog where it is expected and encouraged that the strong and knowledgeable take advantage of the weak and uninformed. Their conclusion that anything goes in business becomes the basis of primitive behavior of the past. People who see a world where this view is acceptable cloak themselves in misunderstood science as they strive to recreate the jungle around them. They have obviously missed the point.

Evolution provides a continually changing and improving definition of “the fittest”. The image of the most aggressive animal in the jungle is backward looking. Evolution looks forward and defines the fittest human being as the one who can demonstrate mastery in the present and future. The fittest today are those who exhibit an ability to work with and lead others. They have achieved the greatest level of consciousness and prescience by establishing future directions and taking actions that produce the greatest good for the greatest number. Evolution is a forward moving process that propels life and human beings to ever-higher levels of greatness and accomplishment.

It is difficult to precisely describe characteristics of the future “fittest” human beings because in large measure we will only know them when we see them. We can get a sense of the type of attributes they will have by looking at the people we honor and whose memory we hold most dear. We remember those who demonstrate concern for the welfare of strangers: Mother Teresa, Albert Schweitzer, and Oscar Schindler. We honor people who articulate higher human ideals and lead great change to improve the human condition, often with great personal sacrifice: Abraham Lincoln, Mahatma Ghandi, Martin Luther King, and Nelson Mandela. We learn from individuals who advance our knowledge and increase the probability of our survival in the future: Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, Charles Darwin, Galileo Galilei, Werner Heisenberg, and Francis Crick. We revere those who advance human belief and inspire us to be better people at peace with the rest of humanity: Siddhartha Gautama, Jesus Christ, Confucius, and Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah. These are the people we honor and remember. They possessed the attributes that made them the fittest of their time and epitomized the kind of people and actions to which we aspire.

We previously observed human thought is at its best when it rises to the highest levels of abstraction. This occurs when it is most productive in reaching for the greatest truth. The ability to abstract an idealized state to which we can direct our action is one of our most advanced intellectual capabilities. It is where we should be looking to see successive breakthroughs in our intellectual evolution.

Abraham Maslow died in 1970. Some people suggest that had he lived longer he would have added to his Hierarchy of Needs. The Hierarchy reflects an exclusively egocentric view of human consciousness. It approaches all levels of need from the individual’s perspective and fails to recognize any higher level of consciousness, one that transcends the individual. It is intuitively obvious that when the individual’s needs have been fulfilled in full measure there is a likelihood they will look beyond themselves to the welfare of others.

It can be observed, however, that many people recognize and respond to the needs of others and they do this without having achieved complete fulfillment of their own needs. This can be seen in the sizable charitable giving of human beings. Many economists, behavioral scientists and cynics question the motivations of those who donate because they sincerely believe human nature is unequivocally self-serving. They argue that charitable giving is motivated by a donor’s expected utility where they derive personal benefit immediately or in the future from the donation. Examples discussed include donating to the creation of a park where the individual will enjoy its benefits or supporting medical research from which he or she may benefit in the future. They also cite the donor’s opportunity to derive benefit from the act of giving either because the size of their donation enables them to the advance their social status or they receive a “warm glow” from making charitable contributions. They may experience this feeling of enhanced self worth even when no direct social benefits are forthcoming to themselves or the beneficiaries of charitable giving are far away.138

The greatest opportunity for us to see this charitable behavior as something other than self-serving occurs when the beneficiaries of the donations are unknown to the donor and little opportunity exists for personal recognition. Examples of these kinds of donations are those made in response to the December 26, 2004 Tsunami as a result of an earthquake in the Indian Ocean off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. Another example is donations given to provide disaster relief after Hurricane Katrina in 2005.

As a result of the 2004 Tsunami, an estimated 229,866 people in some fourteen countries were listed as killed or missing by the UN Office of the Special Envoy for Tsunami Recovery 2005.139 Humanity reacted to this tragedy by donating to its victims. Not counting the assistance and donations from governments nor funds donated by individuals outside the United States, for which there is inconsistent recordkeeping, donations principally from U.S. citizens amounted to $1,874,949,705 in cash and in-kind gifts.140 The comparable figure donated in response to Hurricane Katrina was estimated at $3,574,031,029.141

It is hard to argue that all of these donations are strictly self-serving. The scale of the contributions and the fact that many were made over the Internet, which is an almost anonymous donation medium, suggest there is another cause of this human response. When we identify the types of people we honor and remember we find a common thread that indicates that we recognize and assign the greatest value to behavior and achievements that provide benefit to others, and more particularly to strangers.

It is time to recognize evolutionary development of a new level of consciousness that extends beyond self-serving behavior. We need to add another Being need on Maslow’s Hierarchy, a need for Transcending Ego and manifesting a genuine concern for others. Even if, in order to side step an unnecessary debate, we must satisfy the skeptics by ascribing a “warm glow” of self worth to those who achieve Transcendence, so be it. It is still time to recognize the development of this new level of consciousness and intellectual ascendance.

The most intuitive way of thinking about this transcendent level of the hierarchy is to see it as a mirror image, only inverted, of the original hierarchy in terms of the needs of others. In this view, providing for the physiological needs of others has the greatest urgency, followed by satisfying their safety needs and, in turn, their belonging and esteem needs and ultimately their self actualization. This would seem to be supported by a history of charitable giving where the greatest outpouring of support has occurred when the physiological and safety needs of others are threatened.

There is one final thought that continues to handicap the evolution of human consciousness. That thought occurs when we believe the superficial differences between human beings somehow divide us into meaningful groups. The ongoing perception and definition of difference is the principal root cause of the “Them Versus Us” dichotomy that has contributed to the human history of discrimination, hostility, persecution, slavery, war, and genocide. This belief that somehow one group of human beings is fundamentally different from another and therefore inherently better or worse may be the single most destructive belief people have held onto since our most primitive days.

A wide intellectual acceptance of the theory of evolution exists that holds that all life forms are related. By implication, all human beings are related. This generalized relationship for many people is not direct enough to dispel their ongoing belief in meaningful differences. It is not explicit enough to persuade them to accept all human beings as peers and equals.

Part of the reason this exaggeration of differences persists is the less than certain knowledge of human ancestry provided by archeology, anthropology, and evolutionary biology. A number of fossil discoveries appear to consist of the early human species that inhabit various places on our evolutionary tree. These include Australopithecus anamensis, Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus and Homo heidelbergensis, and Homo sapiens.142 As new specimens are discovered whether on the island of Flores (Homo florensiensis)143, in a Siberian cave (Denisovans)144 or somewhere else, debates continue amongst paleoanthropologists as to which came first and which is in direct line of ancestral succession leading to humans.145 While these ongoing debates have kept alive the thought that the differences between us are significant they all fall somewhere on the human family tree. Unfortunately archeology, anthropology, and evolutionary biology will remain subject to individual interpretation, disagreement, and uncertainty for the foreseeable future.

The unraveling of the human genome in molecular genetics however gives us additional scientific insight that is more precise in defining human relationships. Two independent research efforts have used the nucleotide sequences of alleles and their rate of mutation over time to trace ancestry and population migrations back through the generations. “Dividing the total number of genetic differences between two populations by an expected rate of mutation provides an estimate of the time when the two shared a common ancestor.”146 One effort has been undertaken over a number of years is by Dr. Douglas C. Wallace and his colleagues at the Emory School of Medicine in Atlanta. They use mitochondrial (mt) DNA to create a genetic history.147 (mt)DNA is passed in tiny rings of genetic material in the female egg cell from the mother to offspring with no recombination. This gives a pure maternal genetic history unaffected by male genes. Another effort by Drs. Peter A. Underhill and Peter J. Oefner of Stanford University has analyzed the Y chromosome to trace ancestry through the male population.148

The result of these two efforts was to establish “that the root of the human phylogenetic tree occurs in Africa … and that eastern Africa may have been an ancient source of dispersion of modern humans both within and outside of Africa.”149 Further, the data in these studies trace human ancestry back to a single male and a single female in the relatively recent human history. The mitochondrial data trace our origin to a single female that existed in Africa between 100,000 to 200,000 years ago. “The tree is rooted in a single individual, the mitochondrial Eve, because all other lineages fell extinct.150 The study of the Y chromosome similarly traces our lineage to a single male, the Y Adam, who lived approximately 270,000 years ago.151

As with any scientific conclusion no absolute certainty exists. Indeed there are some who disagree with these findings. Some paleoanthropologists offer an alternative to this Out of Africa conclusion that is the Multiregional View. It suggests the evolution of modern humans began when Homo erectus spread throughout Eurasia approximately one million years ago. There is a third or Compromise hypothesis that combines elements of these two distinct viewpoints.152

These offered alternatives notwithstanding, the weight of scientific evidence indicates all human beings are closely related. Supporting this conclusion is the intellectual framework of evolution, archeological fossil record, our identical anatomical structure, knowledge that humans share 99.9% of the same genes153, and our collective lineage traced back to the same individual female and male ancestors who lived less than 300,000 years ago.

For these reasons we have to allow perceived human differences to slip away as insignificant and inconsequential. Then and only then can we fully acknowledge and embrace our collective human kinship. While we each are individuals with unique life experiences, we are the same. We each benefit from or fall victim to the human condition.

As we look around us we can find countless others that are less or more fortunate than ourselves. We see victims of the accident of origin who are born into environments that have the inherent dangers of starvation, disease, or warfare. We see people with life disabling medical conditions where each day is a stark reminder of their mortality. We see mental illness where the difficulty of day-to-day life or the blight of chemical imbalance or dependence has driven people away from reality. We see impossible circumstances that overwhelm a personal ability to overcome.

We also see people who are born to great wealth or have encountered fortunate circumstances in their lives. There are those who have found the great love of their life and those who have been set on a course that led them to great accomplishment. There are those who are unknown and those who have great celebrity. What we all share is the human condition. We all have high points and low points in our lives. In this we are the same.

This knowledge should lead us to know we are not alone. When we look outside ourselves to all of the other billions of people who are alive at any given moment, we see but one predicament, we are each but one of billions. We were all born, will live and die as a part of the life process. Each of us tries to find the best paths between our births and our deaths for our loved ones and ourselves. In this we are the same and it must bind us together. When we understand the profound shared reality we must feel empathy for one another. This empathy is what enables us to care about the quality of each other’s life experience and encourages us to act to help others when and where we are able.

There is much to do.


Afterwords: The Significance of Insignificance


Paradoxically our individual, objective insignificance in an infinite universe gives us the freedom to attempt to do things of significance. As one of the over six billion people alive today who will exist for probably no more than seven or eight decades within the three plus billion years that life has been on the planet, it is difficult to argue that any of us is capable of doing anything in our lifetime that will be significant. This recognition of our inherent, almost certain, insignificance is intimidating and distressing.

In a counterintuitive way however, this insignificance liberates us. Unbound by the burden of seeking to be significant we are free to try and influence the course of events and stand up to forces in our environment that are doing the things that are counterproductive to the future of humanity and life. If we fail to influence future direction we will end up being no less significant than we would have been anyway. If we succeed in influencing the future toward a more beneficial outcome in even a tiny way, we will bring a measure of significance to our existence way beyond that which we would otherwise have achieved.


Addendum – Intervention Opportunities


The following is a representative list of organizations actively pursuing issues including global climate change and the ozone hole, nuclear disarmament, synthetic biology, disaster and refugee relief, upgrading the quality of life experience, and biological diversity. These and other similarly focused groups would welcome your support and active involvement. Investigate thoroughly since each organization has its own approach to their mission with some groups being much more aggressive and militant than others.

Many of the organizations listed are actively involved in multiple issues. Find the right approach and organizations for you. These and other groups represent a way for each of us to take up the mantle of Guardian and make a difference in the course of our planet’s future. They represent a place to begin or expand our action.




Environmental Defense Fund (EDF)

257 Park Avenue South

New York, NY 10010

Tel: 212 505-2100


Greenpeace International

702 H Street, NW

Washington, DC 20001

Tel: 202 462-1177


Natural Resources Defense Council

40 West 20th Street,

New York, NY 10011

Tel: 212 727-2700




Arms Control Association

1313 L Street, NW, Suite 130

Washington, DC 20005

Tel: 202 463-8270



(International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War)

66-70 Union Square, Suite 204

Somerville, MA 02143

Tel: 617 440-1733


NTI (Nuclear Threat Initiative)

1747 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, 7th Floor

Washington, DC 20006

Tel: 202 296-4810


Trident Ploughshares

42-46 Bethel Street,

Norwich NR2 1NR

United Kingdom

Tel: 0845 45 88 366


Union of Concerned Scientists

Two Brattle Square

Cambridge, MA 02238-9105

Tel: 617 547-5552


War Resisters League

339 Lafayette Street

New York, NY 10012

Tel: 212 228-0450





431 Gilmour Street

Second Floor

Ottawa, ON K2P 0R5


Tel: 1-613-241-2267


Human Genetics Alert

Unit 112 Aberdeen House 22-24

Highbury Grove, London N5 2EA

United Kingdom

Tel: 020 7704 6100


Organic Seed Alliance

PO Box 772

Port Townsend, WA 98368

Tel: 360 385-7192


SYBHEL Project

Center for Ethics in Medicine

University of Bristol

3rd Floor, Hampton House

Cotham Hill

Bristol BS6 6AU

United Kingdom

Tel: +44 (0)117 331 0720



Synthetic Biology Project

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

1300 Pennsylvania Avenue

Washington, DC 20004-3027

Tel: 202 691-4398


The Center for Food Safety

660 Pennsylvania Avenue, SE, #302

Washington DC 20003

Tel: 202 547-9359


The Institute of Science in Society

29 Tytherton Road, London N19 4PZ

United Kingdom

Tel: +44 (0) 1908 696101

Contact: Julian Haffegee




International Red Cross

ICRC Headquarters in Geneva

International Committee of the Red Cross

19 avenue de la Paix

CH 1202 Geneva

Tel: ++41 (22) 734 60 01


Medecins Sans Frontieres

(Doctors Without Borders)

Rue de Lausanne 78

CP 116 – 1211

Geneva 21


Tel: +41 (22) 849.84.84



Oxfam International Secretariat

Suite 20

266 Banbury Road

Oxford OX2 7DL

United Kingdom

Tel: +44 (0) 1865 47 2602

UK 0300 200 1300


The International Rescue Committee

122 East 42nd Street

New York, NY 10168 USA

Tel: 212 551-3000





Equality Now

PO Box 20646

Columbus Circle Station

New York, NY 10023

Tel: 212 586-0906


Genocide Intervention

1200 18th Street NW, Suite 320

Washington, DC 20036

Tel: 202 559-7405


Global Fund for Women

222 Sutter Street, Suite 500

San Francisco, CA 94108

Tel: 415 248-4800


Heifer International

1 World Avenue

Little Rock, AR 72202

Tel: 800 422-0474


Human Rights First

333 Seventh Avenue,

13th Floor

New York, NY 10001-5108

Tel: 212 845-5200




Animal Welfare Institute

900 Pennsylvania Avenue, SE

Washington, DC 20003

Tel: 202 337-2332



(American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals)

424 E. 92nd Street

New York, NY 10128-6804

Tel: 800 628-0028


Compassion in World Farming

River Court,

Mill Lane,

Godalming, Surrey,


United Kingdom

Tel: +44 (0)1483 521 950


Farm Sanctuary

P.O. Box 150 Watkins Glen,

New York 14891

Tel: 607 583-2225


PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals)

501 Front Street,

Norfolk, VA 23510

Tel: 757 622-7382


The Humane Society of the United States

2100 L Street, NW

Washington, DC 20037

Tel: 202 452-1100


The National Anti-Vivisection Society

53 West Jackson Blvd., Suite 1552

Chicago, IL 60604

Tel: 800 888-NAVS

312 427-6065




Center for Biological Diversity

P.O. Box 710

Tucson, AZ 85702-0710

Tel: 520 623-5252


Global Crop Diversity Trust

c/o FAO

Viale delle Terme di Caracalla

00153 Rome


Tel: +39 06 570 55142

+39 06 570 53324





abstraction, human thought and, 72–74, 187

acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 128

affection, needs for, 100

Africa, human phylogenetic tree and, 191–192

agriculture, genetically modified organisms and, 149–150

AIDS. See acquired immune deficiency syndrome

Alpha Centauri System, 43

America and Cosmic Man (Lewis), 14

American Clean Energy and Security Act, 126

amines, 21

amino acids, 21

Anderla, Georges, 64

Ångström, Knut, 118


cycle of life, 178

farm cruelty and, 179–183

human reaction to, 178–179

self recognition and, 178

tools, use of, 57–59

Antarctic, ozone levels, 110–111

Aristotle, 30, 118

Armstrong, Neil, 127

Army-McCarthy Senate hearings, 137

Arrhenius, Svante, 118

art, emotional development and, 78–79

atomic bomb, invention of, 127

Australopithecus anamensis, 190




complex reflex, 66–67

knowledge-based cosmology and, 4

Behringer, Richard, 52


early stage of human civilization, 9

knowledge vs., 11–12, 81–82

belongingness, needs for, 100

Big Bang, 20, 32

billiard ball hypothesis, 35

biogenic sphere, 24–26

Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), 150

birds, tools, use of, 57

Birks, J., 135

Bohr, Niels, 36–37

Bolshevik Party, 136

Bornean Orangutan, 57

bosons, 28–29

Broglie, Louis de, 37

bromine, 112

bromochlorodifluoromethane, 112

bromofluorocarbon compounds, 110

bromotrifluoromethane, 112

Buddha, 30

Bush, George W.

Russian threat and, 140

SORT, 134


California Institute of Technology, 66

Capitalism, 137

carbon dioxide (CO2), climate change and, 117–119

cells, memory and, 45–46

Center for the Neuroscience of Fear and Anxiety, New York University, 75

CERN. See European Organization for Nuclear Research

CFCs. See chlorofluorocarbons

chain reflex, 66

charitable giving, motivation of, 188–189

Chen, Shaohua, 104

Chernoybl-4 nuclear reactor, 139

chimpanzees, tools, use of, 58–59


CFCs and, 115

communism, changes and, 140–141

nuclear weapons, 133, 138, 138–139

poverty line, 105

chlorine atoms, 112

chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 110–112

chromosome, 45–46

climate change, 105–106, 110, 117–131

Climate Stewardship Act, 126

Climate Stewardship and Innovation Act, 126

Cocconi, Giuseppi, 42

The Cognitive Animal (Gallup, Anderson, Shillito), 59, 63

cognitive dissonance, 11

Cold War, 133–134, 136–140

Collins, William, 125

Colman, Robert, 125

Communism, 136–138, 137

The Communist Manifesto, 136

complex reflex, 66–67

compound lens microscope, 27

Compromise hypothesis, 191

compromises, government and industry, 165

conditioned reflex, 65


beliefs vs. knowledge, 11–13

failure to address, 12–13

segregated societies and, 11–12

contextual reformation, 173–174

cosmology, knowledge of universe and, 16–17

Crutzen, Paul, 110–111, 135

Cuban Missile Crisis, 138

cyclic universe, 32



Damasio, Antonio, 74–75, 77–78

Darwin, Charles, 24, 63, 186


inevitability of, 19

of organism, life information and, 53

reanimation and, 91–93

decision making

consciousness, emotions and, 74–75

self awareness and, 65–68

democracy, 137

Denisovans, 190

deoxyribonucleic acid. See DNA

Department of Biological Anthropology, Cambridge University, 58

Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, 50

Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas, 52

Department of Zoology, University of Melbourne, 52

Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain (Damasio), 74

Descartes, René, 56

deterministic system, 35–36

Development Economics Research Group, World Bank, 104

Diamond, Jared, 165

differences, between humans, 189–193

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), 22

death of organism and, 48–58

genetic engineering and, 148

matter, memory and, 45

mitochondrial, 49, 191

nuclear, 49

physical evolution and, 70

Dobson, Gordon, 110

Dobson unit, 110

“Don’t ask, Don’t tell” policy, 13

Drake, Frank, 42

Duke Energy, 127

DuPont, 110



earth, age of, 71

egocentricity, transcending of, 185–193

Einstein, Albert

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and, 38

light, study of, 36

matter, energy and, 19

simultaneity and, 23

Ekman, Paul, 76

Electric Utility Cap and Trade Act, 126

electron microscopy, 51


quantum mechanical theory and, 37

wave function and, 37

emission reduction, 126–127

Emory School of Medicine, Atlanta, 191

The Emotional Brain (LeDoux), 75


art and, 78–79

centering of, 173–175

consciousness, decision making and, 74–75

evolutionary development and, 72–79

origin of, 76–77

empathy, self awareness and, 62–64

Engels, Friedrich, 136

entanglement, quantum, 38–39

environment, humans, impact on, 109–116

esteem, needs for, 100

European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), 28

European Union, 137


aggregate level, 88–89

of emotion, 72–79

of intellect, 72–74, 185

one-to-many-to-one progression, 88

physical, 70–71

survival of the fittest, 186–187

extraterrestrial life, probability of, 42–43



farm animal cruelty, 179–183

fermions, 28

Flannery, Tim, 110–111, 112

force carrier particles, 28–29

fossil DNA, study of, 48–58

Fourier, Joseph, 117–118

France, nuclear weapons, 133

free will, 35

Freon, 110

Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 12



Gaia, 128

galaxies, 29

Gallup, Gordon G., Jr., 62–63

Gautama Buddha, 30

generation, measurement of, 130

genetic engineering, 70–71, 147–150

genetically modified food, 149–150, 158

genome, 45–46

Germany, nuclear weapons, 135–136

glasnost, 139

global climate change, 105–106, 110, 117–131

global village, 14

Global Warming Pollution Reduction Act, 126

Global Warming Reduction Act, 126

God, singular life form and, 92

googol, 31

googolplex, 31

Gorbachev, Mikhail, 139–140

Gore, Al, 122

gorillas, brain and, 63

Great Pyramid of Khufu, 127

Green Revolution, 125–126

greenhouse gas reductions, 126

The Guardian (newspaper), 156

Gulick, Steve, 58

Guns, Germs & Steel (Diamond), 165

The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (McLuhan), 14



Hadron, 28

Halon-1211, 112

Halon-1301, 112

halons, 110

Haywood, James, 125

HCFC-22 (hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22), 115

Heisenberg Indeterminacy Principle, 37–38

Heisenberg, Werner, 37–38

Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, 37–38

Helios, 43–44

Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow), 98–106, 170, 187

Hiroshima, 133

HIV. See human immunodeficiency virus

hologram, 47

Homo erectus, 190, 191

Homo ergaster, 190

Homo florensiensis, 190

Homo genus, 71

Homo habilis, 57, 190

Homo heidelbergensis, 190

Homo rudolfensis, 190

Homo sapiens, 190

first appearance of, 71

uniqueness of, 55–68

homosexuality, American military and, 13

household wealth, 104–105

Hubble space telescope, 31

Human Genome Project, 46

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 155


ancestry, 190–192

body, elements of, 54

development, equality of, 162–163

intervention, future and, 161–167

phylogenetic tree, 191–192

thought, evolution of, 72–74

uniqueness, 53–68

Hume, David, 30

Hurricane Katrina, 2005, charity and, 188

Huygens, Christiaan, 36

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22. See HCFC-22



imperatives, in belief system, 94–96

implications, in belief system, 94–95


CFCs and, 115

nuclear weapons, 133

inductive reasoning, 32–33

infinity, universe and, 30–33

innate reflex, 65, 66

instinct, 8

intellect, evolution of, 8, 72–74

interaction, with others, 175–177

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPPC), 122–124

International Geophysical Year, 119

International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA), 149

intervention, future and, 161–167

intuition, emotion and, 77–78

investigatory reflex, 66

IPPC. See Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

ISAAA. See International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications

isolation, beliefs, conflict and, 11–12

Israel, nuclear weapons and, 133



Jansen, Zacharias, 27

Japan, nuclear weapons, 136

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 155

Jones, Jim, 12

Jurassic Park scenario, 86–87



Kasner, Edward, 30

Keeling, Charles David, 119

Kennedy, Donald, 125

Kennedy, John F., 127

kindness, 177

Klaus, Vaclav, 140


belief vs., 81–82

human differentiation and, 68

quantifying of, 64

Koch, Christof, 66–67

Korean War, 138

Krings, Matthias, 49



language, human differentiation and, 68

Large Hadron Collider (LHC), 28

Law on Cooperatives, 139


capitalism, abuses of, 137

climate change and, 126–127

farm animal cruelty and, 179–183, 182

LeDoux, Joseph, 75

Lenin, Vladimir, 136

leptons, 28

Lewis, Wyndham, 14

LHC. See Large Hadron Collider

life, beginning of, 20–23

life experience, enhancement of, 169–183

life matter, 25

light, study of, 36–39

Lindeman, F.A., 110

livestock, cruelty and, 179–183

living matter, 25–26

love, needs for, 100

Lovelock, James, 128



MacArthur, General Douglas, 138

Macquarie University, 110

MAD. See Mutually Assured Destruction

magnetic field, planet and, 29

magnetism, 91–92

Manning, Martin R., 125

Mao Tse-Tung, 138

mark tests, self-awareness and, 60–61

Marx, Karl, 136

Maslow, Abraham, 97–103, 102, 187

mass spectrometry, 51

matter particles, 28

Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 48, 58

McLuhan, Marshall, 14

McMaster University, Hamilton, CA, 50

Medvedev, Dmitry, 134


encoding and, 84–85

living matter and, 45–54, 83–84

transfer of, past into present, 85

meteorites, 21, 29, 41

methane (CH4), 128–129

microscopes, 27–28

Millennium Development Goals, UN General Assembly, 106–107

Miller/Urey experiment, 21

mirror tests, self-awareness and, 60–61

mitochondrial DNA, 49, 191


first life on planet, 21–22

manufactured, grown, 151–152

Molina, Mario, 111

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1987, 112, 115

Morgan, Dave, 58

Morrison, Philip, 42

The Moscow Treaty, 134

Mote, Philip, 125

Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY, 155

Multiregional View, 191

mutation, genetic modification and, 70

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD), 134



Nagasaki, nuclear bomb, 133

National Academy of Sciences, 149

natural selection, 24, 186

Nature (Molina, Sherwood Rowland), 111

Neanderthal, genetic analysis of, 49–51

New START. See New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty

New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START), 134

New York University, 75

Newton, Isaac, 36

Nisbet, Euan, 129

Noonan, James, 50

North Korea, nuclear weapons and, 133

North Pole, ozone hole, 112

nuclear disarmament, 144–145

nuclear DNA, 49

nuclear weapons, 133–146

nucleotides, synthetic biology and, 152



Obama, Barack, 134

October Revolution, 1917, 136

Oefner, Peter J., 191

On the Origin of Species (Darwin), 24

one-to-many-to-one progression, 24

opposable thumb, 57

optical microscopy, 51

origin of life experiments, 20–22

Out of Africa model, 191

Oxford University, 110

ozone, 110–111

ozone hole, 109–116



Pääbo, Svante, 48–50

Pakistan, nuclear weapons and, 133

Pask, Andrew, 52

Pavlov, Ivan, 5, 65–66

People’s Temple Agricultural Project, 12

peptide nucleic acid (PNA), 151–152

perestroika, 139

philosophy, 9–10

phylogenetic tree, 191–192

physical evolution

genetics, human science of, 70–71

random mutation, genetic modification and, 70–71

selective breeding, 70–71

The Physical Science behind Climate Change (Scientific American), 125

physiological needs, 98

Planck’s constant, 37

PNA. See peptide nucleic acid

Poinar, Hendrik, 50

poliovirus, genetically engineered, 156

politics, global climate change and, 125–126, 147

polymerization, 21–22

poverty rates, 105

prefrontal cortex, self awareness and, 67–68

present moment, 171–173

Prevention of Farm Animal Cruelty Act, 182

primates, tools, use of, 58–59


extraterrestrial life and, 42–43

future events and, 40–41

mathematics of, 39–40

past frequency, 40

time and, 40

proportionality policy, weapons and, 142–143

prosperity, world, 106

Protestant Branch Davidians, 12

Proxima Centauri, 43–44

Putin, Vladimir, 134, 140



quantum mechanics

deterministic universe and, 36

development of, 39

entanglement, 38–39

quarks, 28

A Quest for Consciousness: a Neurobiological Approach (Koch), 66



Randerson, James, 156

Ravallion, Martin, 104

reanimation, death and, 91–93

recollection, 174–175


chain, 66

complex, 66–67

conditioned, 65

innate, 66

investigatory, 66

of self-defense, 66


belief, supernatural and, 3–4

definition of, 10

remote projection, 174

Renfree, Marilyn, 52

Revelle, Roger, 119

ribonucleic (RNA) acid, 22

Rowland, F. Sherwood, 111

Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 111, 118

Rubin, Edward, 50


New START, 134

nuclear war, U.S. and, 135

nuclear weapons, disarmament, 144

threat of, 140–141



Safe Climate Act, 126

safety needs, 98–100

Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 104

Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA, 149

Sanz, Crickette, 58

Schrödinger, Edwin, 37

Science magazine, 125

Scientific American magazine, 125

scientific knowledge, systems of thought and, 10–11

scientific method, 32–33

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 119

secular institutions, beliefs, conflict and, 11

selective breeding, 70–71

self awareness, 59–65

animal kingdom, humans and, 69–70

decision making and, 65–68

empathy and, 62–64

prefrontal cortex and, 67–68

self, consciousness of, 72–73

self-actualization, 101–102

self-defense reflex, 66

Seventh Day Adventist Church, 12

sheep-human chimera, 149

simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), 155

simultaneity, Einstein and, 23

singular life form, optional future and, 89–96

Sirotta, Milton, 30–31

SIV. See simian immunodeficiency virus

smallpox virus, 156

SORT. See Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty

South Africa, nuclear weapons and, 133

South Pole, ozone hole, 112

Soviet Union

Cold War and, 138–139

disintegration of, 140

nuclear weapons and, 133

Spanish Flu virus, 155–156

Special Theory of Relativity (Einstein), 23

Spencer, Herbert, 186

Stalin, Joseph, 138

Standard Model of particle physics, 28

Stanford University, 191

stars, first formation of, 20

State University of New York, Stony Brook, 156

stimulus, response and, 65–66

Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty (SORT), 134

String Theory, 33

Styrofoam, 111

survival of the fittest, 186–187

synthetic biology, 70–71, 147, 150–159

systems of thought

development of, 10

scientific knowledge and, 10–11

Szilard, Leo, 127



Taubenberger, Jeffrey, 155

telescopes, 27

teraelectronvolts (TeV), 28

TeV. See teraelectronvolts


abstraction and, 72–74, 187

human, evolution of, 72–74

systems of, 10–11

thumb, opposable, 57

time, tense of, 170–171

tools, use of, in animals, 57–59

Topolanek, Mirek, 140

totalitarianism, 136–138

Township-Village Enterprises, 141

transcendence, of ego, 189

Trinity test nuclear explosion, NM, 133

Tsunami 2004, charity and, 188

Tyndall, John, 117–118



ultraviolet (UV) radiation, 110, 111

uncertainty, universe and, 35–44

Underhill, Peter A., 191

understanding, search for, 7–17

United Kingdom, nuclear weapons, 133

United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), 122

United Nations General Assembly, 106–107

United Nations, nuclear weapons and, 145

United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research, 104

United States

global climate change and, 125

nuclear weapons, 133–135

use of power and, 141–142

United States Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 155

United States Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, 155

United States Congress, greenhouse gas reductions, 126

United States Department of Agriculture, 150


cyclic, 32

fundamental nature of, 27–28

galaxies, 29

infinity and, 30–33

inner, investigation of, 28

perceptual levels and, 29

structure of, 33–34

University of Nevada-Reno, 148–149

University of Tokyo, 149

uskoreniye, 139

UV radiation. See ultraviolet radiation



VH Bio Ltd., 156

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, 1985, 112, 114

Vindija Cave, Neanderthal bones and, 49–50

viruses, risks of, 154–155

visualization, 175



Wallace, Douglas C., 191

Warren Jeffs, 12

wealth, household, 104–105

The Weather Makers (Flannery), 110

weather models, 120–121, 122

“What-is-it?” reflex, 66

WHO. See World Health Organization

Wildland Security, 58

Wilson, Allan, 48

Wimmer, Eckard, 156

WMO. See World Meteorological Organization

World Bank, 104

The World distribution of Household Wealth (UN), 104

The World Distribution of Income: Falling Poverty and…Convergence, Period* (Sala-i-Martin), 04

World Health Organization (WHO), 156

World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 122

World poverty line, 104

worldview, 13–15



Young, Thomas, 36



Zanjani, Esmail, 148








1Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, Lectures on the Work of the Cerebral Hemisphere, Lecture One, 1924, From Experimental Psychology and other essays, published by Philosophical Library, New York, 1957

2Eric McLuhan, The Source of the term “Global Village”, McLuhan Studies issue 2: The source of the term global village, http://www.chass.utoronto,ca/mcluhan-studies/v1_iss2/1_2art2.htm

3Richard B. Larson, Volker Bromm, The First Stars in the Universe, Scientific American, January 19, 2009.

4James Trefil, Harold J. Morowitz, and Eric Smith, The Origin of Life, American Scientist, Volume 97, May-June 2009, page 206

5Adam P. Johnson, H. James Cleaves, Jason P. Dworking, Daniel P. Glavin, Antonio Lazcano, Jeffrey L. Bada, The Miller Volcanic Spark Discharge Experiment, Science, 17 October 2008; Vol. 322. No. 5900, p. 404.

6Ibid, James Trefil, Harold J. Morowitz and Eric Smith

7Yoshihiro Furukawa, Toshimori Sekine, Masahiro Oba, Takeshi Kakegawa & Hiromoto Nakazawa, Biomolecule formation by oceanic impacts on early Earth, Letter, Nature Geoscience 2, ppgs 62-66, December 7, 2008.

8Martin M. Hanczyc, Shelley M. Fujikawa, Jack W. Szostak, Experimental Models of Primitive Cellular Compartments: Encapsulation, Growth, and Division, Science, October 24, 2003, Volume 302.

9Robert Shapiro, A Simpler Origin for Life, Scientific American, February 12, 2007

10European Organization for Nuclear Research web site,

11Graham P. Collins, Large Hadron Collider: The Discovery Machine, Scientific American Magazine, January 17, 2008.

12Gordon Kane, The Dawn of Physics Beyond the Standard Model, Scientific American, page 70, June 2003.

13David Hume, Hume’s Treatise of Human Nature, Edited by L.A. Selby-Bigge, Henry Frowde, M.A. Publisher to the University of Oxford, at the Clarendon Press, MDCCCXXXIX, page 26.

14Paul J. Steinhardt and Neil Turok, A Cyclic Model of the Universe, Science, May 24, 2002, Vol. 296. No. 5572, pp. 1436-1439. DOI: 10.1126/science.1070462

15Martin Bojowald, Follow the Bouncing Universe, Scientific American, pp. 44-51, October 2008.

16Paraphrased from an Albert Einstein Letter to Max Born, December 4, 1926, The Born-Einstein Letters, (translated by Irene Born), Walker and Company, New York 1971.

17History of SETI, SETI Institute,

18Alpha Centauri 3, website,

19Fastest Manmade Object, website,

20David T. Suzuki, Anthony J. F. Griffiths, Jeffrey H. Miller, Richard C. Lewontin, An Introduction to Genetic Analysis – Fourth Edition, W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, 1989, p. 2

21Susannah Green Tringe, Edward M. Rubin, Metagenomics: DNA sequencing of environmental samples, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, 2005, Paper LBNL>59036.

22Svante Pääbo, Hendrik Poinar, David Serre, Viviane Jaenicke-Després, Juliane Hebler, Nadin Rohland, Melanie Kuch, Johannes Krause, Linda Vigilant, and Michael Hofreiter, Genetic Analyses from Ancient DNA, Annual Review Genet. 2004. 38:645-79, doi:10.1146/annurev.genet.37.110801.143214, July 30, 2004.

23Ashley Yeager, Sequencing the Dead to Save the Living, Science News, pps. 18-21, December 6, 2008.

24Andrew Curry, Ancient DNA’s Intrepid Explorer: Profile Eske Willerslev, Science, vol 317, July 6, 2007, page 36-37.

25Elizabeth Pennisi, The Dawn of Stone Age Genomics, Science, November 17, 2006, Vol 314, pps .1068-1071.

26Igor Ovchinnikov and William Goodwin, The Isolation and Identification of Nea-nderthal Mitochondrial DNA, Profiles in DNA, January 2001,

27Richard E. Green, Johannes Krause, Adrian W. Briggs, Tomislav Maricic, Udo Stenzel, Martin Kircher, Nick Patterson, Heng Li, Weiwei Zhai, Markus Hsi-Yang Fritz, Nancy F. Hansen, Eric Y. Durand, Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas, Jeffrey D. Jensen, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Can Alkan, Kay Prüfer, Matthias Meyer, Hernan A. Burbano, Jeffrey M. Good, Rigo Schultz, Ayinuer Aximu-Petri, Anne Butthof, Barbara Höber, Barbara Höffner, Madlen Siegemund, Antje Weihmann, Chad Nusbaum, Eric S. Lander, Carsten Russ, Nathaniel Novod, Jason Affourtit, Michael Egholm, Christine Verna, Pavao Rudan, Dejana Brajkovic, Zeljko Kucan, Ivan Gusic, Vladimir B. Doronichev, Liubov V. Golovanova, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Marco de la Rasilla, Javier Fortea, Antonio Rosas, Ralf W. Schmitz, Philip L.F. Johnson, Evan E. Eichler, Daniel Falush, Ewan Birney, James C. Mullikin, Montgomery Slatkin, Rasmus Nielsen, Janet Kelso, Michael Lachmann, David Reich, Svante Pääbo, A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome, Science, May 7, 2010, pp. 710-722.

28John M. Asara, Mary H. Schweitzer, Lisa M. Freimark, Matthew Phillips, Lewis C. Cantley, Protein Sequences from Mastodon and Tyrannosaurus Rex Revealed by Mass Spectrometry, Science, April 13, 2007, vol. 316, no.5822, pp. 280-285, DOI: 10.1126/science. 1137614

29Mary H. Schweitzer, Blood From Stone, Scientific American, December 2010, pgs 62-69.

30Andrew J. Pask, Richard R. Behringer, Marilyn B. Renfree, Resurrection of DNA Function In Vivo from an Extinct Genome, PLoS ONE 3(5): e2240. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002240, May 21,2008.


32The Panda’s Thumb,

33Paul R. Ehrlich, David S. Dobkin, and Darryl Wheye, Tool Using,

34Lauren Kosseff, Tool Use in Birds, Animal Cognition Home Page,

35Sharon J.Huntington, Caution: Ingenious animals at work, The Christian Science Monitor, April 19,2005.

36Jennifer Viegas, Study: Dolphins Use Sponge as Tool, Animal Planet News, June 7, 2005,

37Bethan Morgan, Ekwoge Abwe, Use of Stone Hammers Sheds Light On Geographic Patterns of Chimpanzee Tool Use, Science Daily, Cell Press, August 26, 2006.

38Thomas Breuer, Mireille Ndoundou-Hockemba, Vicki Fishlock, First Observation of Tool Use in Wild Gorillas, PLoS Biology, November 2005, Volume 3, Issue 11, pps. 2041-2043.

39Crickette Sanz, Dave Morgan, and Steve Gulick, New Insights into Chimpanzees, Tools, and Termites from the Congo Basin, The American Naturalist, Vol. 164, No. 5, November 2004, 15 pages.

40Jill D. Pruetz, Paco Bertolani, Savanna Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, Hunt with Tools, Current Biology, 2007,

41Jill D. Pruetz, Paco Bertolani, Savanna Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, verus, Hunt with Tools, March 6, 2007, Current Biology 17(5) pp. 412-417.

42Marc Bekoff, Colin Allen, Gordon Burhgardt, The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition, MIT Press, 2002, ISBN: 0-262-02514-0. Gordon G. Gallup, James R. Anderson, and Daniel Shillito, The Mirror Test.

43Diana Reiss and Lori Marino, Mirror self-recognition in the bottlenose dolphin: A case of cognitive convergence, PNAS, May 8, 2001, volume 98, number 10, 5937-5942.

44Kenneth Marten and Suchi Psarakos, Evidence of self-awareness in the bottlenose dolphin, Self-awareness in Animals and Humans: Developmental Perspectives, edited by Sue Taylor Parker, Robert Mitchell, and Maria L. Boccia, Chapter 24, pp 361-379, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

45Joshua M. Plotnik, Frans B. M. de Waal, and Diana Reiss, Self-recognition in an Asian elephant, PNAS, November 7, 2006, volume 103, number 45, 17053-17057.

46Frans B. M. de Wall, The Thief in the Mirror, PLoS Biol 6(8): e201.doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060201, August 19, 2008

47Helmut Prior, Ariane Schwarz, Onur Güntürkün, (2008) Mirror-Induced Behavior in the Magpie (Pica pica): Evidence of Self-Recognition, PLoS Biology 6(8): e202. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060202

48Collected Statements about Animals, Science,

49Robert Anton Wilson, Four Trends That Give Me Hope, 1989.

50Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, Lectures on the Work of the Cerebral Hemisphere, Lecture One, 1924, From Experimental Psychology and other essays, published by Philosophical Library, New York, 1957

51Ibid, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov.

52Ibid, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov.

53Ibid, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

54Christof Koch, A Quest for Consciousness: A Neurobiological Approach, Roberts & Company Publishers, March 2004.

55Ibid. Christof Koch

56Antonio R. Damasio, Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain, Harper Perennial, November 1, 1995.

57Ibid. Antonio R. Damasio.

58Joseph Ledoux, The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life, Simon & Schuster; First Edition, March 27, 1998.

59Paul Ekman, Facial Expression and Emotion, American Psychologist, Vol. 48, No. 4, pps 384-392, April 1993, 1992 Award Addresses.

60Demis Hassabis, Carlton Chu, Geraint Rees, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Peter D. Molyneux and Eleanor A. Maguire, Decoding Neuronal Ensembles in the Human Hippocampus, Current Biology, Volume 19, Issue 7, pps 546-554, March 12, 2009.

61Ibid, Antonio R. Demasio.

62Edward N. Zalta, Principal Editor, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Epistemology, December 14, 2005,

63Paul J. Steinhardt and Neil Turok, A Cyclic Model of the Universe, Science, May 24, 2002, Vol. 296. No. 5572, pp. 1436-1439. DOI: 10.1126/science.1070462

64Abraham H. Maslow, Motivation and Personality, Third Edition revised by Robert Frager, James Fadiman, Cynthia McReynolds, Ruth Cox, Harper & Row, Publishers, 1987.

65Xavier Sala-I-Martin, The World Distribution of Income: Falling Poverty and  … .Convergence, Period, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. CXXI, May 2006, Issue 2.

66James B. Davies, Susanna Sandstrom, Anthony Shorrocks, Edward N. Wolff The World Distribution of Household Wealth, United Nations University, World Institute for Development Economics Research, Discussion Paper No. 2008/03, February 2008.

67The Millennium Development Goals Report, United Nations, New York, 2007.

68UN Report Points to Serious Shortfalls in Development Aid: Millennium Goals in Jeopardy, Secretary-General Warns, United Nations Press Release, July 2, 2007.

69Tim Flannery, The Weather Makers, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2006

70Ibid, The Weather Makers, p214.

71The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995, Press Release, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, October 11, 1995.

72Ibid, The Weather Makers, p217-218.

73Keith Bradsher, New York Times, Air conditioners batter the ozone layer, San Francisco Chronicle, page A5, Friday, February 23, 2007.

74Spencer Weart, The Carbon Dioxide Greenhouse Effect, Text of an essay in the web site “The Discovery of Global Warming” by Spencer Weart,

75American Institute of Physics, 22 pages, May 2006. For an overview, see The Discovery of Global Warming, Harvard University Press, 2003.

76Spencer Weart, The Discovery of Global Warming, Chaos in the Atmosphere, June 2007,

77The IPCC: Who Are They and Why Do Their Climate Reports Matter?, Global Warming, Union of Concerned Scientists,

78The Nobel Peace Prize for 2007, The Norwegian Nobel Committee, Oslo, October 12, 2007.

79IPCC, 2007, Summary for Policy Makers. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,

80IPCC, 2007: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 7-22

81IPCC, 2007. Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, L.A. Meyer (eds)), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

82William Collins, Robert Colman, James Haywood, Martin R. Manning, Philip Mote, The Physical Science behind Climate Change, Scientific American Magazine, pps 64-73, August 2007.

83Donald Kennedy, Editorial – Climate: Game Over, Science, Vol 317, pg. 425, July 27, 2007.

84Welcome to Our Guide to Pyramids,

85Becky, 7 Wonders of the World, The Great Pyramids,

86James Lovelock, Gaia – A New Look At Life on Earth, Oxford University Press, USA, November 23, 2000.

87David Archer, Methane hydrates and global warming, RealClimate: Climate science from climate scientists, December 12, 2005,

88D. Archer,Methane hydrate stability and anthropogenic climate change, Biogeosciences, pps 521-544. July 25, 2007.

89Euan G. Nisbet, online article Have sudden releases of methane from geological reservoirs occurred since the Last Glacial Maximum, and could such releases occur again? The Royal Society website, March 18, 2002

90Nuclear Chronology, Office of the Deputy Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Nuclear Matters Web Site,

91Nuclear Testing Chronology, from National Resources Defense Council,

92Amy F. Woolf, Nuclear Weapons in the U.S. National Security Policy: Past, Present, and Prospects, Congressional Research Service, Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress, October 29, 2007. Order Code RL34226.

93International Treaties and Agreements, Office of the Deputy Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Nuclear Matters,

94The largest cities in the world by land area, population and density, compiled by City Mayors,

95Paul J. Crutzen and John W. Birks, The Atmosphere After A Nuclear War: Twilight At Noon, Ambio, Vol.II, no. 2-3, 1982, p. 114.

96Beyond Deterrence: A Global Approach to Reducing Nuclear Dangers, Chapter 2 Global Roles of Nuclear Weapons, The Henry L. Stimson Center,

97Press Conference by President Bush and Russian Federation President Putin, White House Press Release, Brdo Castle, Brdo Pri Kranju, Slovenia, 5:30 PM local time, June 16, 2001.

98Karen Travers, Bush to Putin: ‘Cold War Is Over”, ABC News Report, June 5,2007

99Vicky Hu, The Chinese Economic Reform and Chinese Entrepreneurship, Lecture, May 2005, X Jornada d’Economia caixaManresa l’esperit emprenedor,

100Erik Stokstad, Experts Recommend a Cautious Approach, Science, Vol 303, January 23, 2004, page 449.

101Scientists create animals that are part-human: Stem cell experiments leading to genetic mixing of species, MSNBC, Associated Press, April 29, 2005.

102Ko Kobayakawa, Reiko Kobayakawa, Hideyuki Matsumoto, Yuichiro Oka, Takeshi Imai, Masahito Ikawa, Masaru Okabe, Toshio Ikeda, Shigeyoshi Itohara, Takefumi Kikusui, Kensaku Mori & Hitoshi Sakano, Innate versus learned odour processing in the mouse olfactory bulb, Nature 450, pps 503-508, November 22, 2007.

103Alysson R. Muotri, Kinichi Nakashima, Nicolas Toni, Vladislav M. Sandler, and Fred H. Gage, Development of functional human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons in mouse brain, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. December 20, 2005; 102(51): 18644-18648.

104USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Biotechology: Noncompliance History,

105U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Statement on Report of Bioengineered Rice in the Food Supply, CFSAN/Office of Food Additive Safety, August 2006,

106Rick Weiss, Biotech Rice Saga Yields Bushel of Questions for Feds: USDA Approval Shortcut Emerges as Issue, Washington Post, Monday, November 6, 2006, page A03

107Marc Gunther, Attack of the mutant rice, Fortune Magazine, July 2, 2007,

108Margaret Mellon, Jane Rissler, Karen Perry Stillerman, To USDA: Deregulation of LLRICE601, Letter from the Union of Concerned Scientists, October 10,2006, _agriculture/solutions/sensible_pharma_crops/ucs-comments-on-deregulation.html

109 Aris A., Leblanc S., “Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada.”  Reprod Toxicol (2011), doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2011.02.004



112Steven A. Benner and A. Michael Sismour, Synthetic Biology, Nature Reviews/Genetics, Volume 6, July 2005, p. 542.

113Daniel G. Gibson, John I. Glass, Carole Lartique, Vladimir N. Noskov, Ray-Yuan Chuang, Mikkel A. Algire, Gwynedd A. Benders, Michael G. Montague, Li Ma, Monzia M. Moodie, Chuck Merryman, Sanjay Vashee, Radha Krishnakumar, Nacyra Assad-Garcia, Cynthia Andrews-Pfannkoch, Evgeniuya A. Denisova, Lei Young, Zhi-Qing Qi, Thomas H. Segall-Shapiro, Christopher H. Calvey, Prashanth P. Parmar, Clyde A. Hutchison III, Hamilton O. Smith, J. Craig Venter, Creation of a Bacterial Cell Controlled by a Chemically Synthesized Genome, Sciencexpress,, May 20, 2010, 10.1126/science.1190719.

114Genesis redux, The Economist, May 22, 2010.

115Holger Breithaupt, The engineer’s approach to biology, EMBO reports 7, 1, 21-23 (2006),,

116Lawrence Fisher, The Race to Cash In On the Genetic Code, New York Times – Business Day, 8-29-1999,

117Gary Stix, Owning the Stuff of Life, Scientific American, February 2006, pps 76-83.

118Synthetic Biology, postnote, Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, January 2008, Number 298,

119Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies (2010, June 8). Government funding for synthetic biology on the rise. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 4, 2010, from

120Synthetic Biology Influencing Development, Lloyd’s Emerging Risks Team Report, Version 1, July 2009,

121Mary Carmichael, How It Began: HIV Before the Age of AIDS, Frontline PBS, May 30, 2006,

122Jon Cohen, The Hunt for the Origin of AIDS, Atlantic Monthly, Medicine, October 2000,

123Jonathan B. Tucker, Raymond A. Lilinskas, The Promise and Perils of Synthetic Biology, The New Atlantis, A Journal of Technology and Society,

124Elizabeth Pennisi, Virology: First Genes Isolated From the Deadly 1918 Flu Virus, Science, March 21, 1977, Vol. 275. No. 5307, pp. 1739.

125Eckard Wimmer, The test-tube synthesis of a chemical called poliovirus: The simple synthesis of a virus has far-reaching societal implications, EMBO reports (European Molecular Biology Organization), Rep. July 2006; 7(SI): S3-S9.

126Cello, Jeronimo; Paul, Aniko V.; Wimmer, Eckard, Chemical Synthesis of Poliovirus cDNA; Generation of Infectious Virus in the Absence of Natural Template, Science, Vol. 297(5583), August 9, 2002 pp 1016-1018.

127James Randerson, Science Correspondent, Lax laws, virus DNA and potential for terror, The Guardian, Wednesday June 14, 2006.,,1796805,00.html

128Julie Wakefield, Doom and Gloom by 2100, Scientific American, July 2004, pgs 48-49.

129Jocelyn Kaiser, Synthetic Biology – Attempt to Patent Artificial Organism Draws a Protest, Science, Vol 316, June 15, 2007, page 1557

130Carolyn Y. Johnson, Accessible Science: Hackers aim to make biology household practice, The Boston Globe, September 15, 2008.

131Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel, W.W. Norton & Co.; July 11, 2005

132Dr. Francis Collins, Director of the National Human Genome Research Institute at the National Institutes of Health, in a speech at the Wilson Center Director’s Forum in a series sponsored by the Wilson Center’s Foresight and Governance Project, March 6, 2001.


134Table of State Humane Slaughter Laws, Michigan State University College of Law, 2006,,

135FSIS Directive 6900.2 Revision 1, 11/25/03, United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service.

136Farm Animal Statistics: Slaughter Totals, The Humane Society of the United States, citing statistics provided by the USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service, August 22, 2009.

137Initiative 07-0028 California Prevention of Farm Animal Cruelty Act,

138Media Coverage & Charitable Giving After the 2004 Tsunami, Philip Brown and Jessica Minty, William Davidson Institute Working Paper Number 855, December 2006.

139Ibid. page 4

140Tsunami Relief Giving, The Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University,

141Gulf Coast Hurricane Relief Donations, The Center on Philanthropy atIndiana University,

142Early Human Phylogeny, Human Ancestors Hall: Tree, Smithsonian Institution,

143Archaeology and age of a new hominin from Flores in eastern Indonesia, M. J. Morwood, R.P. Soejono, R. G. Roberts, T. Sutikna, C. S. M. Turney, K. E. Westaway, W. J. Rink, J.-x. Zhao, G. D. van den Bergh, Rokus Awe Due, D. R. Hobbs, M. W. Moore, M. I. Bird & L. K. Fifield, Letters to Nature, Nature 431, ppgs 1087-1091, October 28, 2004.

144Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia, David Reich, Richard E. Green, Martin Kircher, Johannes Krause, Nick Patterson, Eric Y. Durand, Bence Viola, Adrian W. Briggs, Udo Stenzel, Philip L. F. Johnson, Tomislav Maricic, Jeffrey M. Good, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Can Alkan, Qiaomei Fu, Swapan Mallick, Heng Li, Matthias Meyer, Evan E. Eichler, Mark Stoneking, Michael Richards, Sahra Talamo, Michael V. Shunkov, Anatoli P. Derevianko, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Nature 468, pgs 1053-1060, December 23, 2010.

145African Skull Points to One Human Ancestor, Ann Gibbons, March 20, 2002, ScienceNOW

146Theories on Modern Human Origins and Diversity, Smithsonian Institution,

147Whole-mtDNA Genome Sequence Analysis of Ancient African Lineages, Mary Katherine Gonder, Holly M. Mortensen, Floyd A. Reed, Alexandra de Sousa, and Sarah A. Tishkoff, 2006 Oxford University Press for the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

148The Human Family Tree: 10 Adams and 18 Eves, Nicholas Wade, New York Times, May 2, 2000,

149Ibid, Whole-mtDNA Genome Sequence Analysis of Ancient African Lineages

150Ibid, The Human Family Tree

151The Y Chromosome and the Origin of All of Us (Men), Svante Pääbo, Science, Vol. 268, May 26, 1995. Page 1142.

152Ibid, Theories on Modern Human Origins and Diversity, Smithsonian Institution

153Lauren Crowley, Human Genomics: Our Shared Inheritance, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars,



Comments (0)

Bright Idea

Tags: , , , , , , , , , ,

James Hansen: A “Fittest” to Remember

Posted on 05 July 2013 by Jerry

If you were a scientist, what would you do if you discovered your planet was following the fate of Venus whose water evaporated creating a runaway greenhouse effect that left a 900°F atmosphere of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid droplets?  What if your next forty years of research supported your fears and you knew that people on planet Earth had to make dramatic changes in order to survive?  What if decades passed and nothing was done?

You would be frustrated like Dr. James Hansen, now just retired, who headed the Goddard Institute for Space Studies for thirty-two years.  Dr. Hansen has continually warned the world of the impending disaster known as climate change.  Over many years he has spoken out in academic and scientific, governmental/congressional settings and the public press to transfer his knowledge to others.

Follow this link to the tape of James Hansen’s presentation at a 2012 TED conference.  Go to move to the right of the page and next to Dr. Hansen’s picture select “James Hansen: Why I must speak out about climate change”.  This exceptional presentation summarizes in a clear and straightforward way what Dr. Hansen knows about climate change.

Among many things he describes the changes he and his associates foresaw and forewarned about in 1981 that have all come to pass.  He elaborates on how CO2 allows heat energy to come to the planet from the sun and yet will not let it escape.  He explains the energy imbalance of the planet (more energy coming in than going out) that is gaining extra energy each day equivalent to 400,000 Hiroshima type bombs exploded 365 days per year. He concludes we must reduce our CO2 from today’s atmospheric 400 parts per million (see post of May 26, 2013 “Déjà Vu – 400PPM 2.2 Million Years Ago”) back to 350 parts per million to restore the planet’s proper energy balance.

In this month’s posting of Chapter 16 – Transcending Egocentricity from Beyond Animal, Ego and Time, we observe that evolution is forward looking and comment on the true meaning of “survival of the fittest”.  We suggest a completely different reading of the phrase based on the evolutionary process.  Further, the “fittest” are those people that “can demonstrate mastery in the present and future…who exhibit an ability to work with and lead others” and “have achieved the greatest level of consciousness and prescience by establishing future directions and taking actions that produce the greatest good for the greatest number.”

These “fittest” are the people we revere and remember.  Dr. James Hansen, will be one of those people.  Although he has much left to do, he should be listed with the other people who have dedicated their professional and personal lives to the betterment of the rest of us and all following generations.

Use for following links for further information: (Select “James Hansen: Why I must speak out about climate change”) (this gives you a link to the presentations and testimony of Dr. Hansen from 2004 to 2012)

Comments (0)

Advertise Here
Advertise Here
July 2013
« Jun   Aug »