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What does SeaWorld do with its Orcas?

Posted on 27 May 2016 by Jerry

SeaWorld gave up after years of fighting with liberals, resisting pressure from People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) amongst others, and reacting to the blow-back from public reaction to the movie “Blackfish” which criticized its handling of the Orcas in its care. SeaWorld Entertainment announced it would end its Orca performances in San Diego.

The orca or killer whale is actually the largest member of the oceanic dolphin family, a water borne family of mammals. Considered apex predators they have no animal that preys on them. We have explored in depth the intellectual capabilities of dolphins and easily extend those capabilities to the orcas. They are smart animals that are used to ranging wide in the open ocean (as much as 160 kilometers in a day).

We assume there are plans to continue performances in Orlando, Florida and San Antonio, Texas because there are no reports of a change in its plans. By agreement with the Humane Society of the United States, SeaWorld Entertainment said they are completely ceasing their orca-breeding program. They face a problem and great controversy in the question of what to do with an orca that is borne and raised or has existed almost entirely in captivity.

The two sides of the argument are those who favor releasing the orcas into the open ocean and those who believe SeaWorld should build sea pens in which to keep the orcas until they die or keep them in the same enclosures they presently inhabit. Unfortunately the past history of orcas that have been released or found their way into the open ocean is not good.

A prime example is Keiko who was captured off the coast of Iceland in 1979 and the star of the “Free Willy” movie. After several years performing at a Mexico City theme park, Keiko in 1998 was transported to a sea pen in Iceland. The sea pen was 250 feet long, 100 feet wide and 30 feet high.

On one of its excursions outside its sea pen, while accompanied by its caretakers on a ship, Keiko later swam away. He was later spotted in a deep inlet in Norway where he was playing with fishermen and their children. Keiko later died of pneumonia.

SeaWorld points to Keiko as an example of a whale that while caught in the wild did not survive being returned to the open ocean. Detractors would disagree in the sense that Keiko was close to his natural age and was not in his sea sanctuary when he died.

SeaWorld’s CEO summed up the Keiko experience by saying, “Never in the history of mankind has an orca born under human care survived in a release to the wild. Even though Keiko was born in the wild and millions were spent preparing him for release, after being released he died from pneumonia and starvation. We are not going to take this risk with SeaWorld’s whales.”

While SeaWorld made the right decision to suspend its orca performances in San Diego, it needs to affirmatively suspend all performances of orcas at every facility. It also made the right decision to halt its breeding program at all SeaWorld sites. It has a dilemma facing it now with its decision of what to do with its orcas.

With a lot of people on both sides of the argument, it faces a real quandary as to what to do. The writer believes that continuing the performances at SeaWorld should not happen and that the orcas should be housed in sea pens that are specially designed for them. I don’t believe the Keiko pen was big enough for orca health and satisfaction but I also do not support release in the open ocean since it would mean certain death for many of SeaWorld’s orcas.

What is your opinion about what should be done with the remaining 23 or so SeaWorld orcas? Should SeaWorld keep having orca performances? Should SeaWorld continue their confinement to their present facilities? Should sea pens be provided or should they be released to the open ocean? Please let us know your views by appending your comments and questions to this article.

Use the following links to obtain more information about the orcas or access the original stories that served as the basis of this article.

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/10/business/seaworld-san-diego-killer-whales-shamu-show.html?_r=0

http://us.whales.org/wdc-in-action/fate-of-captive-orcas

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/nov/09/seaworld-end-orca-whale-shows-san-diego

http: //www.usatoday.com/story/money/2015/11/09/seaworld-killer-whales-orca-shows/75461780/

http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-seaworld-sea-pens-20160317-htmlstory.html

http://www.kpbs.org/news/2016/mar/17/seaworld-will-not-breed-orcas-phase-out-orca-shows/

http://phys.org/news/2016-04-scientists-bemoan-seaworld-decision-orcas.html

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/03/17/470720804/seaworld-agrees-to-end-captive-breeding-of-killer-whales

http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/ct-seaworld-killer-whale-breeding-20160404-story.html

http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/03/seaworld-stops-breeding-orcas-what-are-impacts-research

http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/apr/27/seaworld-free-captive-orcas-jean-michel-cousteau

https://www.thedodo.com/seaworld-orcas-sea-sanctuaries-pens-1700373682.html

https://www.yahoo.com/news/seaworld-trying-block-shareholder-vote-whale-sanctuary-peta-023950588–sector.html?ref=gs

http://www.esquire.com/news-politics/news/a42458/seaworld-animal-rights-groups/

 

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It Is Time To Commemorate Us

Posted on 14 February 2016 by Jerry

We should formally recognize our impact on planet Earth. We should rename the epoch we are in. We should close the Holocene Epoch and open the Anthropocene or human altered geologically significant Epoch. We should use it as the rallying point to express the urgency of our fight to reverse humanity’s devastation of the planet.

The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) is a professional organization that determines the Geological Time Scale under which the Earth operates. They, for example, formally named the Holocene or “entirely recent” Epoch that we are presently in. It began 11,700 years ago after the last major ice age and was progressing before our global affect on the planet was recognized.

The IUGS has formed an Anthopocene Working Group (from anthopo, for “man” and cene for “new”) with a target date sometime in 2016 to determine if we should change the name of our present Epoch to recognize humanity’s impact. This group is to make a formal recommendation to the IUGS this year.

It has already been well documented that humanity has fundamentally changed the planet. We know for example that we transitioned to the industrial age beginning in the early 1700’s. This represented the beginning of our global impact on the Earth. We started with England and by 1850 we were beginning to transform the rest of the world.

We quickly transitioned to fossil fuels and never stopped our increasing use. We moved from ongoing flows of water, wind, plants and animals to first coal then oil and gas. These fuels offered access to carbon stored in the ground from millions of years of photosynthesis. This represented a massive energy subsidy from the past to the present and became a great source of human wealth.

Today we use about five times as much energy as the hunter-gatherer societies that have gone before. Between the years 1800 to 2000 the human population grew more than six-fold with the worldwide economy growing about 50-fold and our energy use expanding about 40-fold. Nowhere was our growth more evident than our impact on the atmosphere.

An article by Will Steffen, Paul Crutzen, and John R. McNeil in December of 2007 said, “By 1950 the atmospheric CO2 concentration had pushed above the 300 ppmv, above its preindustrial value of 270-275 ppmv and was beginning to accelerate sharply.” In 2015 we have already had days and weeks above the 400 ppmv. It is only a matter of a short time when we will reach an average annual rate above 400 ppmv.

Paul Crutzen and Eugene Stoermer originally proposed this formal adoption of the Anthropocene Epoch in the year 2000 in an article that appeared in the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Global Change Newsletter. Readers will remember that Paul Crutzen was given a Nobel Prize for discovering the destruction of the ozone in our upper atmosphere by human used chemicals.

An article appearing in the March 11, 2015 issue of Nature magazine entitled the Anthropocene: The human age stated, “When Crutzen proposed the term Anthropocene, he gave it the suffix appropriate for an epoch…Between then and the new millennium, he noted, humans had chewed a hole in the ozone layer above Antarctica, doubled the amount of methane in the atmosphere and driven up carbon dioxide concentrations by 30%, to a level not seen in 400,000 years.”

The same article observed, “When the Anthropocene Working Group started investigating, it compiled a much longer list of the changes wrought by humans. Agriculture, construction and the damming of rivers is stripping away sediment at least ten times as fast as the natural forces of erosion. Along some coastlines, the flood of nutrients from fertilizers has created oxygen-poor ‘dead zones’, and the extra CO2 from fossil fuel burning has acidified the surface waters of the ocean by 0.1 pH units. The fingerprint of humans is clear in global temperatures, the rate of species extinctions and the loss of Arctic ice.”

A key objective is to establish a key ‘geological signal’ or ‘golden spike’ that can be used worldwide by stratigraphers (scientists who study rock layers) and geologists to show the separation of one epoch from another. In an article entitled the Geology of Mankind in 2002 by Crutzen published in the journal Nature Crutzen argues “The Anthropocene could be said to have started in the late Eighteenth century when analysis of air trapped in polar ice showed the beginning of growing global concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane.” This would be around the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Europe and/or coinciding with James Watt’s design of the steam engine in 1784.

Other seminal events or golden spikes have been suggested.   A leading candidate is a spike in geologic time or a visible signal shown in sediments worldwide that occurs in the 1950s and 1960s representing the worldwide fallout from nuclear weapons and their tests in the open air of the planet. In fact a member of the IUGS Working Group has suggested the specific date of 16 July 1945 or the day of the first atomic-bomb blast, as the beginning of the Anthropocene Epoch.

Those who have read the book Beyond Animal, Ego and Time know that chapter 12 states, “On July 16, 1945 the United States led an unknowing world into the nuclear age with the Trinity test nuclear explosion in New Mexico…Most people would credit the development of nuclear weapons as the tipping point where human beings moved from being incapable of destroying all life on planet Earth to fully capable.”

In a Smithsonian magazine article appearing in January of 2013 Joseph Stromberg writes, “Will Stephen, who heads Australia National University’s Climate Change Institute and has written articles with Crutzen, recommends starting the epoch with the advent of the industrial revolution in the early 1800s or with the atomic age in the 1950s. Either way, he says the new name sends a message: “[It] will be another strong reminder to the general public that we are now having undeniable impacts on the environment at the scale of the planet as a whole, so much so that a new geological epoch has begun.”

The article continues, “To Andrew Revkin, a New York Times reporter (now blogger) who suggested a similar term in 1992 that never caught on (“Anthrocene”), it’s significant that the issue is being debated at all. “Two billion years ago, cyanobacteria oxygenated the atmosphere and powerfully disrupted life on earth,” he says. “But they didn’t know it. We’re the first species that’s become a planet-scale influence and is aware of that reality. That’s what distinguishes us.”

For this reason and because it is true, the choice of this date and the use of the development of nuclear weapons as the beginning of the Anthropocene Epoch would be very appropriate. We should endorse this change and allow all of human kind to mark its ascension as the initiators of a new and dangerous epoch, the Anthropocene.  It should give every one of us a new urgency to change the destructive path we are on. The future is ours to shape. Whether we are victorious or go down to a final defeat is up to us and depends on what we do in the coming days and years.

For additional information or to access the source documents used for this article use the following links.

http://www.pik-potsdam.de/news/public-events/archiv/alter-net/former-ss/2007/05-09.2007/steffen/literature/ambi-36-08-06_614_621.pdf

http://www.nature.com/news/anthropocene-the-human-age-1.17085

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/351/6269/aad2622

http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/jan/07/human-impact-has-pushed-earth-into-the-anthropocene-scientists-say

http://quaternary.stratigraphy.org/workinggroups/anthropocene/

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/what-is-the-anthropocene-and-are-we-in-it-164801414/?no-ist

http://phys.org/news/2016-01-anthropocene-hard-evidence-human-driven-earth.html

http://nymag.com/scienceofus/2015/06/anthropocene-debate.html#

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What Can You Do With Air? Suck Carbon?

Posted on 14 November 2015 by Jerry

One way to control climate change is not to put more carbon dioxide into the air but rather to take it out. Numerous firms and researchers are trying to develop cost effective ways of sucking carbon dioxide from our polluted air and turning it into salable products. Stuart Licht, a Professor of Chemistry at George Washington University in Washington D. C, leads researchers attempting to exploit this opportunity.

Licht begins with a solar cell that is a concentrated photovoltaic. He uses it to focus sunlight to a semiconductor panel that converts about 40% of the energy into electricity at a high voltage. An article in the September 11, 2015 issue of Science magazine goes on to state, “The electricity is shunted to electrodes in two electrochemical cells: one that splits water molecules and another that splits CO2. Meanwhile, much of the remaining energy in the sunlight is captured as heat and used to preheat the two cells to hundreds of degrees, a step that lowers the amount of electricity needed to split water and CO2 molecules by roughly 25%.”

The problem that all researchers have run into is the absence of government funding which they originally believed was possible. The question they then have to confront is how to monetize what they do; have someone else pay them to remove CO2 for example from coal plant exhaust, from the air or turn it into a product that they can sell.

Licht’s team from George Washington University had earlier solved this problem by turning the extracted CO2 to carbon nanoscale fibers. Appearing in the August 19, 2015 MIT Technology Review, the article states that assuming there would be great growth in demand Professor Licht believes “the material’s properties, especially the fact that it is so lightweight and also very strong, will spur greater and greater use as the cost comes down.”

The team is taking CO2 and cooks it in molten carbonates. Surrounding air is added with a current of electricity from steel and nickel electrodes. Carbon nanofibers begin to grow on the steel electrode. The article continues as Dr. Licht is quoted as saying, “Imagine that carbon fiber composites eventually replace steel, aluminum, and even concrete as a building material…at that point, there could be sufficient use of this that it’s actually acting as a significant repository of carbon…We have found a way to use atmosphere CO2 to produce high-yield carbon nanofibers.”

Another company that has built a demonstration machine in British Columbia, Canada, is Carbon Engineering out of Calgary. David Keith is executive chairman of the firm and is also a climate physicist at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. His company is partially funded by Bill Gates. They recently opened a facility at Squamish, British Columbia, that processes about a ton of CO2 per day.

An article in the October 15, 2015 issue of Nature magazine states, “The plant uses fans to push air through towers containing potassium hydroxide solution, which reacts with CO2 to form potassium carbonate; the remaining air now containing less CO2, is released. Further treatment of the solution separates out the captured CO2, regenerating the capture solution for reuse.” Carbon Engineering additionally announced a deal with the province of British Columbia to assess the feasibility of turning the CO2 into fuel to power local buses.

There are other startups including one that has as its largest investor Edgar Bronfman Jr., former chairman and CEO of Warner Music. Another startup is working with Audi. These startups are looking to sell CO2 to be pumped into greenhouses to increase crop yields. In addition, they would like to remove carbon dioxide at the behest of a U.S. energy company.

This is not to say that any of the aforementioned companies will succeed or dominate a thriving business. They are trying however to develop a technology that will obviously benefit those of us that are concerned about climate change. This is the type of entrepreneurial effort that we need to be encouraging and saluting. Let us all hope for great success for these entrepreneurs and the venture capitalists that are funding them.

Use the following links to access additional information or look at the original source documents used for this article.

http://news.sciencemag.org/chemistry/2015/09/feature-there-s-too-much-carbon-dioxide-air-why-not-turn-it-back-fuel

http://www.technologyreview.com/news/540706/researcher-demonstrates-how-to-suck-carbon-from-the-air-make-stuff-from-it/

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-33998697

http://www.gizmag.com/c02-atmosphere-carbon-nanofibers/39015/

http://www.nature.com/news/commercial-boost-for-firms-that-suck-carbon-from-air-1.18551

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/06/business/pilot-plant-in-the-works-for-carbon-dioxide-cleansing.html?_r=0

http://www.fastcoexist.com/3051240/these-enormous-fans-suk-co2-out-of-air-and-turn-it-into-fuel

http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2015/jul/14/carbon-direct-air-capture-startups-tech-climate

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Pope’s Visit Highlights Humility

Posted on 25 September 2015 by Jerry

The Pope delivered a message and was a prime example of humility to the Congress. Most of us were moved by his messages that pointed out we are each single human beings with responsibilities to find our highest values and act on them. All of the members of Congress could not help but put aside political considerations and seek a path to work together on the very special issues we are all facing. It is gratifying to see the Pope use his platform to highlight the worldwide dilemmas we face. As a human being, he is truly deserving of our admiration.

The humility he displayed was underscored by how he spent his time. His decision was that he would not spend his lunchtime with our legislators but rather have lunch with a group of homeless people served by a Catholic charity. This choice exemplified his priorities.

He stressed that as individuals we must protect other humans from adversity (or take care of people and realize what they are going through) whether they are refugees from Syria, Mexico or anywhere. We need to put ourselves in their shoes and empathize with the challenges they face. He changed subjects and stated we must protect the environment as the final shepherds of our planet’s wellbeing (or we must pool our collective efforts to deal with global warming).

While there are some areas that are still ripe for disagreement, the messages he gave were general enough to be inclusive of most of us. As an example he asked each of us to respect the sanctity of life, to protect life at every stage of its development. His remarks about the abolishment of the death penalty were consistent with his admonishment to respect the sanctity of life.

His remarks were also interpreted by some as a reference to abortion.   Whether you are a supporter of a woman’s right to choose or believe that life begins at conception, his point was broad enough to include most of us.

He reminded people to reject their tendency to paint all peoples, including those who have our adversaries in their ranks, with a common brush. We must not extend our dislike of individual actions to an entire population (we should not blame all in a group, for instance Muslims or arms traders, for the violent or illegal actions of a few within that group). We should love all peoples irrespective of members within these groups whose actions we don’t support.

He reminded us to eradicate poverty and hunger in the world. He restated that we must become our brother’s keepers who truly care about the well being of all others no matter where they exist in the world.

His references to great examples of faith included Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King, Dorothy Day (founder of the Catholic Worker Movement) and Thomas Merton (an American Cistercian monk). These were pious Americans who lived the essence of these beliefs. We also appreciated his reminder for us of the golden rule, “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.” (Mt: 712).

No matter who you are or which belief system you accept, his statements resonate at a very personal level as a single human being concerned about the future. He picked issues of concern to all of us to include in his statements. We all hope that the warm glow of his remarks continues beyond the time of his departure.

There are so many things that we, each of us, must do. Ours is a time for reflection where each of us must ask ourselves what are we doing to further these beliefs or solve humanity’s problems. We have a common cause with Catholic beliefs to act consistent with our highest values in how we conduct ourselves and which issues we support and to which we dedicate our lives.

Use the attached link to access the Pope’s message to Congress. The link accesses the text of the Pope’s speech.

http://time.com/4048176/pope-francis-us-visit-congress-transcript/

 

 

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Reality of Recycled Water is Being Recycled

Posted on 27 July 2015 by Jerry

They say the West Coast and specifically California leads major trends that overcome the greater U.S. and the world.  Nowhere is this more apparent than the region’s conservation of water.  Long known for wasting water with lawns, pools and golf courses, parts of the West are now recycling and conserving water in the face of one of its longest droughts in recent years, four years and still counting.

And no one expects significant help to come to either California or other Western states in 2015.  This year is shaping up in the entire world to be the warmest on record.  Even if the Western states of the U.S. face a strong El Nino that will bring a lot of rain, the rest of the world should have another record year of heat.  March, May and June 2015 have each set monthly “hottest” records.  This puts the first half of the year in the record category for the entire world.

Actually drinking recycled water is gaining adherents in the face of the drought.  While recycled sewage water has been used for more than a decade in San Jose and Santa Clara for irrigating golf courses, landscaping and industrial purposes, it is now being proposed as drinking water for the populace.  San Jose and Santa Clara mayors drank a glass of recycled sewage water in April of 2015.  They argued it is time to mix the recycled water with the normal water supply and serve it back to the population of both cities.

This is a new option that is being inserted between consuming surface water and water table or underground aquifers.  Our technology is now offering us another way of postponing our depletion of fresh water sources.

We completely agree and suggest this become the predominate option to postpone the looming water shortage worldwide.  We believe that the reuse or recycling of sewage water for drinking is an absolute necessity that will significantly slow our use of our most critical asset, our water table.  The rest of this article will further describe the problem this addresses.

Fully recycled water has been added to the normal water supply in a number of cities including Wichita Falls and Big Springs, Texas.  This remixing of recycled water with drinking water has also been used since 2008 in Orange County, California.  A June 2015 article in The Star states, “The Orange County Water District began filtering treated sewage water in a three-pronged process – purifying it through reverse osmosis and ultraviolet – and infusing it into aquifers.  It remains there for a year before being pumped into the drinking water system.”

Recycled water has long been used for non-drinking purposes.  The City of Los Angeles has been reusing water for irrigation since the 1990’s.  A few cities in Australia have been using recycled water for irrigation and experimenting with the drinking of former sewage water.

Of course cities around the world are seeing their surface water disappear.  With the absence of rain, the melting of high mountain glaciers and the falling levels of stored water in lakes and reservoirs, cities around the world are using up their sources of surface water.

Cities such as Las Vegas are putting in lower access pipes to their major water source and the U.S.’s largest reservoir, Lake Mead.  Lake Mead’s water is down to a level of 1,080 feet.  The Lake’s water level drop is equal to the width of a football field, down from a high of 1,225 feet in 1983.  Since the year 2000 this represents a reduction of almost 4 trillion gallons of water.  The problem is the projected level of 1,075 feet in January of 2016 would cause cutbacks in water use in Arizona and Nevada.

At 1,000 feet the water intakes to Lake Mead from Las Vegas will run dry denying the City of Las Vegas almost all of its drinking water.  This reality is causing the Southern Nevada Water Authority to spend in excess of $800 million to build a lower, new access pipe to Lake Mead.  This access pipe would be twenty feet in diameter.  This adds more water resources for a city that already reuses 93% of its water for irrigation and non-drinking purposes.

Cities are now using their underground water to a greater degree to make up for shortages.  They are using their underground water for irrigation and drinking.  This is a worldwide problem.  Unfortunately these underground natural water tables or aquifers require a much longer time for replenishment.  Large swaths of the Earth are running out of water.

In a nutshell our natural tendency is to run out of surface drinking water, then to use underground sources and then, as a final option, to recycle our water and reuse sewage water.  Because this underground water in the natural aquifer takes so long to replenish, sometimes hundreds or thousands of years, it must be the last option we choose.

We must recycle our water and drink former sewage water immediately to protect our underground aquifers as the last option for a thirsty planet.  In this our astronauts are once again showing us the way.  In space, they have been recycling their own water for many, many years.

This article celebrates the mayors of cities all over the world that take the lead encouraging their citizens to recycle and drink the resulting water.  We also salute the astronauts of the world who led the way we all need to go.

Use the following links to obtain additional information or access the original documents used to prepare this article.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/drinking-from-the-toilet/

http://news.yahoo.com/another-month-another-global-heat-record-broken-far-180100305.html

http://www.cnbc.com/2015/05/27/drought-to-deluge-el-ninos-impact-on-california.html

http://www.thestar.com/news/world/2015/06/24/would-you-drink-water-from-the-toilet.html

http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10000872396390444270404577607333668861496

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/12/science/recycled-drinking-water-getting-past-the-yuck-factor.html?_r=0

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/08/12/lake-mead-water-levels_n_5670898.html

http://www.cbsnews.com/news/lake-mead-is-shrinking-and-with-it-las-vegas-water-supply/

http://www.livescience.com/39625-aquifers.html

 

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